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TRUBNER'S 

ORIENTAL SERIES 



THE 



SATAKAS OF BHARTRIHARL 



into (35ngltsfj from tfte riginal 



REV. B. HALE WORTHAM, B.A. 

M.RA.S. 

RECTOR OF EGGESFORD, NORTH DEVON. 



LONDON: 
TRUBNEK & CO., LUDGATE HILL. 

1886. 

[All rights reserved.] 



p* 



BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. 

EDINBURGH AND LONDON 




TO 
EDWARD BYLES COWELL, ESQ., M.A., LL.D., 

PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. 



PREFACE. 



OF the three Satakas or centuries of couplets ascribed to 
Bhartrihari, the Mti and Vairagya Satakas alone are 
included in the following pages. The Sringara Sataka 
contains so many stanzas requiring modification, so many 
more wholly untranslatable into English, that on due 
consideration I have decided to omit this collection of 
stanzas from the volume now published. It only remains 
for me to convey my thanks to the friends who, in various 
ways, have so kindly and willingly contributed their aid 
in helping me to carry out this work. 

B. H. W. 



INTRODUCTION 

TO 

THE SATAKAS OF BHARTRIHARI. 



WHO was Bhartrihari ? what was his date ? where did he 
live ? did he, in fact, ever really exist at all ? These are 
questions to which no satisfactory answer has as yet been 
given. It has been alleged that he was of regal descent, 
and the brother of Vikramaditya ; that not only did he 
belong to a reigning family, but that he was next in suc- 
cession to the crown, and that, disgusted with the world, 
he resigned in favour of his brother Vikrama. 

He is the reputed author of three Satakas or centuries 
of couplets : 

1. Sringara Sataka, a purely amatory poem ; 

2. Niti Sataka, on polity and ethics ; 

3. Vairagya Sataka, on religious austerity. 

Besides these, tradition assigns to him a grammar called 
Vakyapadiya, and a poem called Bhattikavya. 

But beyond tradition there is no evidence whatever as 
to the authorship of these Satakas. The theory already 
referred to, that Bhartrihari was a prince who quitted the 
world in disgust, is founded upon the somewhat vague 
allusions in the second Sloka of the Niti Sataka. This 
has been supposed to refer to the discovery of a domestic 
intrigue in his own household, which so shook Bhartrihari's 
faith in worldly matters, that he decided to abdicate his 
royal position, and to retire into the forest as an ascetic. 



x INTRODUCTION TO 

These conclusions seem, however, too much to deduce 
from a remark in itself somewhat obscure. But whoever 
the author may have been, there seems a continuity and a 
uniformity in each of these separate Satakas, as well as a 
similarity in character between them, which forbid us to 
accept the theory that they are merely a compilation of 
well-known sayings. The unbroken tradition, moreover, 
that they are the authorship of one man (whatever his 
name may be) should not go for nothing. 

The question of date is almost as difficult to decide 
as that of authorship, and this can only be arrived at 
approximately on internal evidence. The doctrines enun- 
ciated in the Vairagya Sataka are relied on as supplying 
us with some of the proofs that are required. Many of 
the Slokas in this Sataka speak in the language of the 
Vedantic philosophy. The rooting out of Karma or 
action, absorption into the Supreme Spirit, the driving 
out of Moha or illusion by Jnana, or the true knowledge- 
these ideas occurring very frequently in the Vairagya 
Sataka, all point to Vedantic influence. The eighth or 
ninth century A.D. has, on these grounds, been assigned 
as the date of these Satakas. Not that this date can 
be held as conclusive; for though Sankaracharya, the 
great exponent and formulator of the Vedantic philo- 
sophy flourished and taught at that date, it is not, there- 
fore, proved that the Vedantic doctrines did not exist 
before his time ; and it necessarily follows, therefore, that 
neither similarity of idea nor of phraseology can warrant 
us in making Bhartrihari's Satakas cotemporary with 
Sankaracharya. 

The argument as to their date from the mention of the 
Puranas in the Vairagya Sataka seems to be equally 
unconvincing. Some of the Puranas may be even com- 
paratively modern productions, as late as the fourteenth 
or fifteenth century; but some are much earlier, dating 
back to the fifth or sixth century A.D. Further, the 
contents of these Puranas may be carried back to an even 



THE SATAKAS OF BHARTRIHARI. xi 

earlier date, and are spoken of under the title of Puranas 
by Amara Sinha in the first century B.C. Therefore, to 
derive any satisfactory conclusion as to dates from the 
mention of the Puranas in the Vairagya Sataka, we 
should require to know what Puranas are referred to in 
the particular passages whether the works known to us 
as Puranas or those known under that name to Amara 
Sinha. 1 

Telang, in the preface to his editions of the Niti and Vai- 
ragya Satakas, is in favour of assigning the close of the first 
or beginning of the second century to the author of these 
philosophical poems, in opposition to some authorities, who 
would place his date at 56 A.D. He grounds his view on 
the following considerations. Tradition informs us that the 
author of the Satakas was Bhartrihari, the brother of King 
Vikrama, and that he also composed a grammatical work 
called the Vakyapadiya. This work shows us that its 
author lived at least one generation after Patanjali's com- 
mentary on Panini's Grammar, called Mahabhashya, had 
come into general use. The date of Patanjali varies 
according to different authorities from 200 B.C. to 25 A.D. 
Bhartrihari, in the Vakyapadiya, notices the fact that the 
Mahabhashya had gone through changes and rearrange- 
ments of text ; possibly interpolations and additions. 
The period between 144 B.C. (which Telang considers the 
probable date of Patanjali) and 56 B.C. would have been 
hardly long enough to account for alterations and inter- 
polations in the text of the Mahabhashya, and therefore 
56 B.C., as the date of Bhartrihari, must be abandoned. 
We have, however, seen that Vikramaditya was said to be 
the brother of Bhartrihari. Now there appears to be a 
general consensus of opinion that this Vikramaditya \A'as 
the founder of the Saka era, and that he lived about 78 A.D. 

This date allows an interval of more than two centuries 
between Patanjali and Bhartrihari, a period of sufficient 

1 Some, however, have placed Amara Sinha in the middle of the third 
century A.D., or even later. 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

length to account for the alterations and interpolations 
which existed in the text of the Mahabhashya referred 
to in the Vakyapadiya. On these grounds, then, such as 
they are, the authorship of these Satakas has been assigned 
to the end of the first or to the beginning of the second 
century A.D. 

Some attempt has been made to fix Bhartrihari's date 
by comparison with that of Kalidasa. But the date of 
Kalidasa himself is not sufficiently well ascertained to 
arrive at any certain conclusion by that method. 

Much, therefore, as to the date and authorship of these 
poems must be left to probability and conjecture. 

Note. The text from which the following translation has been 
made is that edited by K^shinath Trimbak Telang, Bombay, 1874. 



THE SATAKAS OF BHARTRIHARI. 



NITI SATAKA. 



Concerning Morality. 

1. SALUTATION to the deity who is not definable in time 
or space: infinite pure intelligence in incarnate form: 
who is peace and glory : whose sole essence is self-know- 
ledge. 

2. That woman is attracted by another man whom I 
supposed to be always devoted to me : to her another man 
is attached : while a certain other woman takes pleasure 
in my doings. Fie on her and on him, on the god of love, 
on that woman, and on myself. 

3. The man who is entirely ignorant is easily guided : 
the wise man is still more easily led: but even the Supreme 
Being himself cannot influence the smatterer. 

{ 4/)A man may forcibly get back a jewel from the teeth 
of a crocodile : he may cross over the raging waves of the 
sea: hejnay_wear an an gry: serpent^ on his head as if it 
were a garland of flowers: but he cannot win over the 
niind of one who is foolish and obstinate. 

5. A man may get oil from sand by violent pressure : 
he may drink water from a mirage when oppressed by 
thirst : he may get possession of the horn of ajbarej but 
he cannot win over the mind of one who is foolish and 
obstinate. 




NfTI SATAKA. 

'He who would lead evil men into the path of virtue 
by a few soft words, is as one who binds an elephant with 
a young lotus-fibre : as one who tries to cut the diamond 
with a filament of irisha ; or as one who desires to make 
the salt sea sweet with a drop of honey. 

7. The Creator has given man, as it were, a cloak to 
conceal his ignorance : with that he can cover himself at 
all times, for it is always at hand. That gift is silence, 
the special ornament of the ignorant in the assembly of 
the wise. 

8. When I knew but a little, I was blinded by pride, as 
an elephant is blinded by passion : my mind was exalted, 
and in my arrogance I thought I knew all things. Then 
I came into the presence of the wise who know many 
kinds of wisdom, and my pride left me even like a fever. 

9. A dog eats with delight putrid abominable bones, 
and though the king of the gods may stand before him, 
takes no heed: even so a mean man considers not the 
worthlessness of that which belongs to him. 

10. The Ganges falls from heaven upon the head of Siva ; 
from the head of Siva on to the mountain ; from the top of 
the mountain to the earth, always falling lower and lower : 
even in so many ways is the fall of one whose judgment 
has departed from him. 

( llj Fire can be quenched by water, the heat of the sun 
canr-be kept off by a parasol, a wild elephant can be 
guided by a sharp hook, an ox or an ass by a stick : sick- 
ness can be subdued by the help of physicians, poison 
by the assistance of various charms. A cure has been 
ordained by the Sastras for everything, but there is no 
medicine for the cure of a fool. 

1 2. The man who has no sense of literature and music 
is like a beast, though he has not horns and a tail : he may 
not eat grass, but yet he lives a life exactly like that of 
the cattle. 

13. Those in whom is neither wisdom, nor penance, 
nor liberality, nor knowledge, nor good disposition, nor 



Nfrl SAT A K A. 3 

virtue, nor righteousness, may live in the world of mortals 
in the form of men, but they pass through the world like 
beasts encumbering the earth. 

14. It is better to wander in a mountain-pass with the 
wild beasts than to live in the palace of the gods with a 
fool. 

The Praise of Wisdom. 

15. When wise men dwell in poverty men whose 
words are adorned with polished sayings from the Sastras, 
and who impart sacred learning to their disciples then 
that prince in whose kingdom they dwell is chargeable 
with folly, and the wise men, though poor, are the rulers 
of the land. Should not those bad examiners be worthy 
of condemnation who (through) carelessness cause jewels 
to fall from their true value ? 

1 6. kings! cast off your pride before those who have 
the inward treasure of wisdom : they are not despoiled by 
robbers, but their treasure, always increasing, grows greater 
when it is shared with the needy : not even at the end of 
the world does it perish. Who indeed may compare with 
them? 

17. Despise not wise men who have attained to know- 
ledge of the truth. They are not held bound by riches, 
for they count wealth even as grass. The stalk of a water- 
lily will not bind an elephant who is infuriated by passion. 

1 8. The Creator in his anger may hinder the swan from 
sporting in the lotus-bed, his dwelling ; but he cannot take 
away his faculty of separating milk from water. 

19. Bracelets are no ornament to a man, nor strings of 
pearls clear as the moon ; nor yet bathing, nor perfumes, 
nor flowers, nor decorated hair. Perfect eloquence alone 
adorns a man. Adornments may perish, but the orna- 
ment of eloquence abides for ever. 

20. Wisdom, indeed, is the highest ornament that a 
man possesses. It is a valuable to be carefully guarded, 
for wisdom gains food, glory, and blessing. It is the lord 



4 NITI SATAKA. 

of lords. Wisdom is as a friend to a man travelling in a 
distant land. Wisdom is honoured among kings even more 
than wealth. The man devoid of wisdom is but an animal. 

21. If a man has patience, what need has he of armour? 
If he has anger in his heart, what further enemy need he 
fear ? If he has knowledge, what need of fire to consume 
evil ? If a friend, what need has he of divine medicines ? 
If there are malicious people about him, why should he be 
afraid of serpents ? If he has perfect wisdom, what need 
of riches ? If he is modest, what need has he of orna- 
ment ? If he give his mind to poetry, what need has he 
of power ? 

22. Be well disposed towards relatives ; liberal to infe- 
riors : always hate the evil ; love the good ; be obedient to 
princes ; honour the wise. Be firm towards enemies ; be 
respectful to venerable men ; deal shrewdly with women. 
The man who frames his life after these precepts prospers 
in the world. 

23. Intercourse with wise men takes away dulness of 
mind, elevates the intellect, inspires the speech with 
truthfulness. What will it not do for men ? 

24. May there be glory to wise men who are learned 
and accomplished poets! There is no fear that their 
renown shall wither or perish. 

25. A virtuous son, an affectionate wife, a liberal master, 
a loving friend, a guileless kinsman, a mind not harassed 
by care, a handsome form, abiding riches, a mouth abound- 
ing in wisdom these are the gifts which Hari, the giver 
of desires, the delight of the earth, bestows upon the man 
with whom he is pleased. 

26. Abstinence from destroying life, keeping one's 
hands off another's wealth, speaking the truth, reasonable 
liberality according to one's power, not conversing with 
the wives of other men, checking the stream of covetous- 
ness, reverence towards spiritual fathers, compassion to- 
wards all creatures this is the path of happiness, violating 
no ordinances, taught in all the Sastras. 



NlTI SATAKA. 5 

27. The low-minded man does not make even the least 
effort in the pursuit of wisdom through fear of difficulties : 
if he has made any attempt, he stops when obstacles meet 
him. The noble-minded man may meet with repeated 
hindrances, but when he has once begun the pursuit of 
wisdom he does not give it up. 

28. Eighteousness must be loved ; evil must be avoided, 
even at the risk of death ; wicked men must not be spoken 
to ; a poor man, even though he be a friend, must not be 
asked for alms : even in adversity the foot must be con- 
stant, and the vow taught by good and great men must be 
conformed to, even if it be as difficult as to stand on the 
edge of a sword ! 

The Praise of Firmness. 

29. The lion, though overwhelmed by hunger and weak- 
ened by old age, though at the point of death and in a 
state of misery, and though his majesty may have left 
him and his life be vanishing away, yet his whole desire 
is to swallow at one mouthful the forehead of the kingly 
elephant which he has crushed in pieces. How should he, 
the mightiest of living things, feed upon withered grass ! 

30. A dog rejoices over a small filthy bone of an ox 
which he has found stripped of flesh, though it satisfies 
not his hunger ; but the lion passes by the jackal stand- 
ing near him and attacks the elephant. So the man of 
firm mind, even though he may be in distress, desires that 
which is in accordance with his natural disposition. 

31. The dog falls down low before the feet of one who 
gives him food, wagging his tail and opening his mouth 
wide ; but the elephant, on the other hand, remains un- 
moved, and only eats after he is entreated with flattering 
words. 

32. What man is not born again while he passes from 
one birth to another ? But that man only is truly born 
by whose birth his family attains to dignity. 



6 NfTI SATAKA. 

33. There are two uses both for a garland of flowers 
and also for a wise man they may be exalted on the 
head or wither in the forest. 

34. Although the five or six planets, of which Vrihas- 
pati is the head, are held in high esteem, yet Eahu, whose 
power and might are great, does not attack them. The 
lord of the demons, though he has nothing left him but 
his head, devours in his course only the lord of the day 
and the ruler of the night. 

35. Sesha bears all the worlds placed on his serpent- 
like head : he himself is always borne on the back of the 
king of the tortoises, who dwells, held without difficulty, 
in the bounds of ocean. Ah ! with what ease do the 
mighty perform great marvels ! 

36. The son of Himalaya would have behaved far more 
nobly if he had allowed enraged Indra to cut off his wings 
with the thunderbolt breathing forth huge masses of flame, 
and had not, when his father was helplessly subject to cala- 
mity, sought a refuge by throwing himself into the ocean. 

37. The sun-stone, though insensate, is kindled into 
light when touched by the rays of the sun : how then 
should a mighty man bear an injury inflicted by another. 

38. The lion, though young, attacks the elephant infu- 
riated with passion. The energy of the noble-minded man 
proceeds from his natural disposition, not from his youth. 

Praise of Riches. 

39. Our noble birth may go to the lower regions; our 
virtues may perish ; our moral character may fall as if 
from a lofty mountain ; our family may be consumed by 
fire ; a thunderbolt may strike our might as it were an 
enemy : let us keep our money, for without this all the 
collected virtues are but a heap of grass. 

40. These are all the same senses exactly the same 
action the same intellect undiminished : the same voice. 
But though a man may remain exactly what he was, yet, 



NITI SATAKA. 7 

when deprived of the warmth which wealth gives him, he 
becomes some one altogether different. This is indeed 
wonderful ! 

41. If a man be wealthy, he is of good family, he is wise, 
he is learned in the Scriptures, he is virtuous, eloquent, 
beautiful. All the virtues attach themselves to gold. 

42. A king is ruined through evil counsellors : an 
ascetic through society : a child by spoiling : a priest by 
not studying the Sacred Scriptures : a family by the evil 
behaviour of children : good manners by evil habits : 
modesty by wine : agriculture by want of care : affection 
by absence from home : friendship by want of love : 
possessions by mismanagement : money by waste and 
prodigality. 

43. Giving, consuming, and loss, are the three ways 
by which wealth is diminished. The man who neither 
gives nor spends has yet the third way open to him. 

44. A jewel is cut by the polishing stone ; a conqueror 
in war is killed by weapons ; the elephant is weakened 
by passion; the islands in a river become dry in the 
autumn ; the moon wanes ; young women become languid 
through pleasure, yet is their beauty nothing lessened : 
so noble men who have diminished their wealth by giving 
to the needy are still illustrious. 

45. A man who is famishing longs for a handful of 
grain ; but when he has revived, he looks on the whole 
earth as a mere handful of grass. So objects seem great 
or small according to the condition of the men who 
possess them : it is the change in men's fortune which 
makes things seem greater or smaller. 

46. If, king ! if you would enjoy this earth, which is 
as fruitful as a cow, nourish it as carefully as you would 
a calf. The earth brings forth fruits without end like 
the creeper of plenty if it is perpetually and carefully 
cultivated. 

47. The behaviour of kings is as uncertain as the way 
of a courtesan. Now it is false, now true now with 




8 NtTI SATAKA. 

harsh, now with agreeable words now cruel, now mer- 
ciful at one time liberal, at another covetous either 
always squandering money or heaping it together. 

48. Authority, fame, the guarding of Brahmans, libe- 
rality, feasting, protection of friends : what profit is there 
to those who serve kings if they have not gained these 
six blessings ? 

49. Whatever fate has written on the forehead of each, 
that shall he obtain, whether it be poverty or riches. 
His abode may be the desert, but he shall gain no more if 
he live even on Mount Meru. Let your mind be constant. 
Do not be miserable through envy of the rich. The 
pitcher takes up the same quantity of water whether it be 
from the well or the ocean. 

50. "Who does not know that thou, cloud, art the 
one support of the Chataka? Why, most beneficent 
cloud ! dost thou wait for our cry of misery ? " 

51. "Ah! beloved Chataka, hear and listen attentively 
to what I tell thee. The heavens have many clouds, but 
they are not all alike ; some water the earth, others thun- 
der and pour forth no rain." Do not degrade yourself by 
asking alms of any one whom you may chance to meet. 

Concerning Evil Men. 

52. Cruelty, causeless quarrels, the desire for another's 
wife or money, envy of the good, or of one's own rela- 
tives. These are the natural characteristics of wicked men. 

53. An evil man should be avoided though he be 
adorned with learning. Is a snake less feared because it 
is ornamented with jewels ? 

54. The moderate man's virtue is called dulness ; the 
man who lives by rigid vows is considered arrogant ; the 
pure-minded is deceitful ; the hero is called unmerciful ; 
the sage is contemptuous ; the polite man is branded as 
servile, the noble man as proud; the eloquent man is 
called a chatterer; freedom from passion is said to be 



NtTI SATAKA. 9 

feebleness. Thus do evil-minded persons miscall the vir- 
tues of the good. 

55. If a man be greedy, what further vice can he have ? 
What sin can be worse than backbiting ? What need has 
the truthful man of penances ? What need has the pure- 
minded man of a sacred bathing-place ? What virtue is 
beyond generosity ? If there be greatness of mind, what 
adornment is required ? If a man be learned, what neces- 
sity is there of the society of others ? If disgrace over- 
take a man, why need he fear death ? 

56. The moon obscured by the daylight, a woman no 
longer young, a pond destitute of water-lilies, a handsome 
man who talks nonsense, a prince entirely devoted to 
money, a good man always in calamity, an evil man 
dwelling in a king's court these are seven thorns in 
my mind. 

57. A king full of wrath hath no friend. The sacred 
fire burns even the priest who offers the sacrifice if he 
touches it. 

58. The man who preserves a respectful silence is con- 
sidered dumb ; the man who talks agreeably is considered 
forward ; the man who stands close by is thought trouble- 
some; he who stands far off, cold-hearted; the patient 
man is counted as faint-hearted; the impetuous man is 
called ill-bred. So difficult, indeed, are the laws by which 
behaviour is regulated, impossible to be learnt even by an 
ascetic. 

59. Is it possible to take pleasure in the society of a 
low man, dissolute, whose evil is all evident, whose wicked 
acts are the result of former births, who hates virtue, and 
who lives by chance ? 

60. The friendships formed between good and evil men 
differ. The friendship of the good, at first faint like the 
morning light, continually increases ; the friendship of the 
evil at the very beginning is great, like the light of mid- 
day, and dies away like the light of evening. 

6 1. Deer, fish, and virtuous men, who only require grass, 



io NiTI SATAKA. 

water, and peace in the world, are wantonly pursued by 
huntsmen, fishermen, and envious people. 



The Character of the Good. 

62. Desire for the companionship of the good, love for 
the virtues of others, reverence for spiritual teachers, dili- 
gence in acquiring wisdom, love for their own wives, fear 
of the world's blame, reverence for Siva, self-restraint, 
freedom from the acquaintance with evil men wherever 
men dwell endowed with virtues like these, they are 
always reverenced. 

63. Firmness in adversity, restraint in prosperity, elo- 
quence in the assembly, boldness in war, the desire of 
glory, study in the Scriptures these are the natural char- 
acteristics of the virtuous. 

64. Secret generosity, cheerful hospitality to strangers, 
not speaking in public about one's own good deeds, pro- 
claiming the benefits received from others, freedom from 
pride in prosperity, due respect in speaking of others 
this is the vow of exceeding difficulty, taught by the good. 

65. Liberality is the fitting virtue for the hand, rever- 
ence towards spiritual teachers for the head, true speech 
for the mouth, surpassing power for the arms of a mighty 
man, content for the heart, the holy Veda rightly under- 
stood for the ears ; the man of noble mind who is the 
possessor of these adornments has no need of outward 
pomp. 

66. The heart of the wise is soft as a lotus flower in 
prosperity, but in adversity it is as firm as a mountain 
rock. 

67. Water will not remain on hot iron, but standing 
on a lotus leaf it shines with the beauty of a pearl ; and 
if a drop of water fall under a favourable star into the 
middle of an oyster in the sea, it straightway becomes a 
pearl. So is the disposition of men, good, tolerable, or bad, 
according to the society in which they live. 



NfTI SATAKA. ii 

68. The son who delights his father by his good actions, 
the wife who seeks only her husband's good, the friend 
who is the same in prosperity and in adversity these 
three things are the reward of virtue. 

69. Those who are ennobled by humility: those who 
display their own virtues by relating the virtues of other 
men : those who in their own business always consider 
the interests of others : those who hate the evil speaker, 
and the mouth that continually utters harsh and impa- 
tient words : good men whose admirable behaviour is 
shown in virtues like these are always held in reverence. 
Who would not respect them ? 

The Way of Liberality. 

70. Trees loaded with fruit are bent down ; the clouds 
when charged with fresh rain hang down near the earth : 
even so good men are not uplifted through prosperity. 
Such is the natural character of the liberal. 

71. The ears of such men as these are adorned with 
hearing revelation, not with earrings ; their hands with 
liberality, not with bracelets ; their bodies shine through 
doing kind deeds to others, not with ointment of sandal- 
wood. 

72. The good man shuns evil and follows good: he 
keeps secret that which ought to be hidden : he makes 
his virtues manifest to all: he does not forsake one in 
adversity: he gives in season. Such (according to the 
wise) are the marks of a worthy friend. 

73. The sun opens the lotuses; the moon illuminates 
the beds of water-lilies ; the cloud pours forth its water 
unasked : even so the liberal of their own accord are 
occupied in benefiting others. 

74. Those men are good men who study the good of 
others without regarding themselves. Those men are 
ordinary men who, while they benefit others, do not 
neglect their own interests. Those men are demons who 



12 NtTI SATAKA. 

destroy another's good for their own profit. What shall 
we call those who aimlessly destroy that which is an- 
other's ? 

75. The milk that has been joined to the water has 
long since given over to it its own innate qualities. The 
water has seen the milk growing hot, and has imme- 
diately made an offering of itself in the fire. The milk 
was eager to rush into the fire, but having seen its 
friend's distress, remains still, being joined to the water. 
Even so is the friendship of the good. 

76. The ocean endures the sleep of Ke*sava, and is a 
refuge for the mountains in their flight from the demons ; 
moreover, it is filled with devouring flames within. Surely 
the ocean can endure anything ! 

77. Restrain desire, cultivate patience, conquer illusion, 
do not lust after evil, speak the truth, follow that which 
is good, seek the company of the virtuous, honour the 
wise, be reconciled even with enemies, conceal your own 
virtues, guard your good name, show pity for the unfortu- 
nate these are the acts of the good. 

78. How many noble men are there whose thoughts, 
words, and deeds are, as it were, filled with nectar by 
whom the three worlds are loaded with blessings who 
exalt even the very smallest virtues of another to the size 
of a mountain whose hearts are constantly expanding ? 

79. What profit is there in Meru, the mountain of gold, 
or of the hill of silver, where the trees that grow remain 
.the same trees without any change ? We honour the hills 
of Malaya, for by contact with them common trees like 
the Trophis Aspera, the bitter Nimba, and the Karaya 
become themselves even as sandal trees. 

The Praise of Constancy. 

So. The gods rested not until they had gained posses- 
sion of the nectar : they were not turned aside from the 
search by pearls of great price, nor by fear of terrible 



A T 177 SATAKA. 13 

poison. Even so men of constant mind do not rest until 
they have completely accomplished their object. 

8 1. At one time a man may lie on the ground, at an- 
other he may sleep on a couch ; at one time he may live 
on herbs, at another on boiled rice ; at one time he may 
wear rags, at another a magnificent robe. The man of 
constant rnind, bent on his purpose, counts neither state 
as pleasure nor pain. 

82. Courtesy is the ornament of a noble man, gentle- 
ness of speech that of a hero ; calmness the ornament of 
knowledge, reverence that of sacred learning; liberality 
towards worthy objects is the ornament of wealth, free- 
dom from wrath that of the ascetic; clemency is the 
ornament of princes, freedom from corruption that of jus- 
tice. The natural disposition, which is the parent of the 
virtues in each, is their highest ornament. 

83. The constant man may be blamed or praised by 
those skilled in discerning character ; fortune may come 
to him or may leave him ; he may die to-day or in ten 
thousand years' time ; but for all that he does not turn 
aside from the path of righteousness. 

The Power of Fate. 

84. A rat fell by night into the jaws of a serpent whose 
body had been squeezed into a basket, and who was half- 
dead with hunger. The serpent, revived by his meal, 
went forth, and immediately meeting with the same fate 
as the rat, perished. Be content, my friends, with your 
lot ! The success or failure of men is in the hands of fate. 

85. A ball, though it fall to the ground, flies up again 
by the strokes of the hand. Even so the misfortunes of 
good men are not often lasting. 

86. Idleness is a great enemy to mankind : there is no 
friend like energy ; for if you cultivate that it will never 
fail. 

87. The tree that is cut down grows again ; the moon 



14 NITI SATAKA. 

that wanes waxes again after a time. Thus do wise men 
reflect, and, though distressed, are not overwhelmed. 

88. Indra, though guided by Vrihaspati, and armed with 
the thunderbolt ; though the deities were his soldiers, and 
Vishnu his ally ; though Svarga was his citadel, and the 
elephant Airasvata his steed, was defeated. How resist- 
less is the power of fate ! How vain are human efforts ! 

89. Discernment is the fruit of men's actions, and is the 
result produced by deeds performed in another state : this 
must be carefully considered by the wise man who gives 
heed to all things. 

90. A bald-headed man was scorched by the rays of the 
sun on his head, and seeking a shady place, went, under 
the guidance of fate, to the foot of a palm tree. While 
resting there, the fruit of the tree fell with a loud noise on 
his head and broke it. Even so, wherever the unfortunate 
man goes, he generally meets with disaster. 

91. When I see the sun and moon exposed in the eclipse 
to the assaults of the demon ; when I behold the bonds 
which hold a serpent or an elephant ; when I behold the 
wise man in poverty, then the thought strikes me, " How 
mighty is the power of fate ! " 

92. Fate brings forth an excellent man a very mine of 
virtue and in a moment works his ruin. Alas ! how un- 
reasoning is the action of fate ! 

93. It is not the fault of the spring that the leafless tree 
does not produce leaves ; it is not the fault of the sun that 
the owl cannot see by day ; it is not the fault of the rain- 
cloud that the drops do not fall into the cuckoo's mouth. 
Who shall reverse that which fate has written on the fore- 
head of each ? 

The Praise of Action. 

94. We worship the gods, but are they not in the power 
of fate ? Destiny must be worshipped, for that is the sole 
giver of rewards to man proportioned to the acts of their 
former state. But the fruit of those acts depends upon the 



NtTI SATAKA. 15 

acts themselves ; why, then, should we worship either the 
god or destiny? Let us pay adoration to those works 
over which fate has no power. 

95. By means of destiny Brahma was constrained to 
work like an artificer in the interior of his egg ; by means 
of destiny Vishnu was compelled to pass through ten in- 
carnations of great difficulty ; by means of destiny Siva 
was forced to live as a mendicant, bearing the skull in his 
hands for a pot ; by means of destiny the sun is compelled 
to travel his daily course in the heaven. Adoration, there- 
fore, be to works. 

96. Neither beauty, nor greatness of family, nor force of 
character, nor learning, nor service, though performed with 
care, but merit alone, gained from penances in a former 
state, will bring forth fruit to a man as a tree in its 
season. 

97. A man may be in a forest, or in war, or in the midst 
of fire, or among a host of enemies, or in the ocean, or 
upon a high mountain ; he may be asleep or mad ; or he 
may be surrounded by difficulties ; yet the good actions 
performed in a former state will profit him. 

98. wise man ! cultivate constantly divine virtue ; 
for that makes evil men good, the foolish wise, enemies 
well disposed, invisible things visible ; in a moment that 
turns poison into nectar ; that will give you the desired 
fruit of your acts. virtuous man ! do not vainly spend 
labour on acquiring mighty gifts with great pain ! 

99. The wise man, at the beginning of his actions, looks 
carefully to the end of them, that by their means he may 
be freed from births in another state. Actions performed 
with excessive haste are even as an arrow piercing the 
heart. 

100. The man who, placed in the world of action, does 
not walk piously, regarding his state hereafter, is as one 
who cooks the lees of sesame over a sandal-wood fire in 
a caldron of lapis-lazuli, or as one who ploughs with a 
golden share to cultivate swallow-wort, or as one who 



16 NITI SATAKA. 

cuts down a grove of camphor to fence in a field of 
kodrava. 

101. A man may dive into the sea, he may ascend to 
the top of Mount Meru, he may be victorious over his 
enemies, he may devote himself to merchandise, he may 
plough the earth, he may study all learning and all art, he 
may travel on the wings of a bird from one end of heaven 
to the other, but yet he shall suffer that which is fated 
him on earth, neither shall that fail which is destined for 
him. 

1 02. A terrible wood becomes a splendid city, and the 
whole world is filled with jewels, to that man who has 
performed righteous acts in his former existence ; all men 
reverence his virtues. 

Supplementary &lokas. 

103. What is most profitable ? Fellowship with the 
' good. What is the worst thing in the world ? The society 

of evil men. What is the greatest loss ? Failure in one's 
duty. Where the greatest peace ? In truth and righteous- 
ness. Who is the hero ? The man who subdues his senses. 
Who is best beloved ? The faithful wife. What is wealth ? 
Knowledge. What is the most perfect happiness ? Stay- 
ing at home. What is royalty ? Command. 

104. The man who possesses intelligence, like the 
jasmin flower, has two courses open to him: he may 
flourish in the sight of the world, or he may wither away 
in the desert. 

105. The earth is variously adorned in various places ; 
by poor men whose words are of no account by rich men 
whose words are admired by those contented with their 
own wives by men who refrain from passing censure upon 
others. 

1 06. The constant man loses not his virtue in misfor- 
tune. A torch may point towards the ground, but its 
flame will still point upwards. 



SATAKA. 17 

107. The mind of the constant man is not pierced by 
the arrows shot from the glances of love ; he is not con- 
sumed by the fire of anger : worldly objects do not en- 
snare him in the net of covetousness ; he is the lord of the 
three worlds. 

1 08. The mighty earth, trodden by the feet of one hero, 
is lightened up with his exceeding great glory as though 
by the shining of the sun. 

109. Through the power of constancy fire becomes 
even as water, the ocean becomes but a rivulet, Mount 
Meru becomes only a small stone, a lion becomes as 
harmless as an antelope, a savage beast becomes a garland 
of flowers, poison is turned into nectar. The constant 
man, by his constancy, turns the savage things in nature 
into the most gentle. 

no. Honourable men may cast aside life and happiness, 
but inasmuch as they are intent upon truth, they do not 
cast off their truthfulness, the cause of modesty and of all 
the virtues, following them wherever they may go, pure in 
heart, even as dear to them as their own mother. 

Miscellaneous Satakas. 

1. A morose heart, a face exalted with inward pride, 
a nature difficult as an exceedingly narrow mountain- 
pass this is known as the character of women : their 
mind is said by the wise to be as changeable as the drop 
of dew which rests upon the lotus leaf. Faults indeed 
develop in a woman together with her growth, as the 
poisonous shoots sprout in the creeper. 

2. Whether a brave man who is killed in the foremost 
of the fight obtain heaven or victory, he will gain great 
glory from both armies ; and this is the aim of one who 
desires fame. 

3. Of all the exceeding marvels which I behold, the 
Boar and Rahu bear away the palm. The one bore the 
drowned earth on his tusks, which dripped with water ; 

B 



1 8 Nfrl SATAKA. 

the other, who has only a head, swallows his foe and then 
lets him go again. 

4. The earth is bounded by the ocean, the ocean ex- 
tends but a thousand yojanas, the sun always measures 
his course through the sky ; these objects then are bounded 
by certain definite limits. There is nothing exceeding 
them in greatness but the intelligence of wise men, which 
has no limits. 

5. There is one divinity, Kesava or Siva; one friend, 
a king or an ascetic ; one dwelling, in a town or in the 
forest ; one wife, handsome or ugly. [It matters not which 
a man may choose.] 

6. The world, though it be supported on the king of the 
serpents, on the elephants that bear it up, on the great 
mountains, and on the tortoise, shakes; but that which 
has been promised by men of pure minds never fails, even 
though ages have passed away. 

7. The tortoise is pained through the weight of the 
earth ; why then does he not cast it off ? The sun feels 
fatigue in his course ; why then does he not stand still ? 
Looking on these examples, a noble man is ashamed to 
fail in his promises ; he faithfully keeps his word. Thus 
are vows kept in the family of a good man. 

8. When a man is satisfied with food, he enters into 
subjection to the world ; even so a drum sends forth an 
agreeable sound when its surface is covered with flour. 

O 

9. Low-minded men are occupied solely with their own 
affairs, but noble-minded men take special interest in the 
affairs of others. The submarine fire drinks up the ocean 
to fill its own insatiable interior; the rain-cloud, that it 
may relieve the drought of the earth, burnt up by the 
hot season. 

10. The counsellor truly, like the poet, is never free 

from a load of trouble ; he collects new -I r eanin s I f rom 

{ revenue j 

, . , ,, ( vulgar expressions ) . , 
afar, and avoids all \ ^ } ; he devotes 



NfTI SATAKA. 19 

himself to pleasing the assemblies of the good ; with toil 

f quarter of a verse ) , 

and labour he makes ax , > by conlorm- 

place j 

ing to the thoughts of the world. 

1 1. Whatever has been appointed by fate in this life fo: 
each man, that shall be his lot, be it great or small. The 
cloud rains day by day, filling all things, but only a few J 
little drops fall into the ch&taka's mouth. 

12. The wise must be respected, even when the advice 
they give us is not suitable. The ordinary converse of 
such men is like Holy Writ. 

13. A good man may fall, but he falls as a ball; an 
ignoble man falls like a lump of clay. 

14. If, by the decree of fate, the world were ever to 
become deprived of lotuses, would the swan scratch in the 
dust-heap like the cock ? 

15. Elephants, filled with passion, heavy with sleep, 
may stand at the gate ; horses, adorned with golden orna- 
ments, may gallop about filled with spirit ; their owner 
may be wakened from his sleep by the sound of drums, 
conchs, cymbals, fifes, and lutes : all this, a state like that 
of the lord of the deities, is the reward, outwardly dis- 
played, of religious merit (gained in former births). 

1 6. The joy of those whose minds are alive to the 
happiness of content is perfect, but the desire of those 
who are disturbed by the lust after riches never ceases. 
For whose sake was Meru created by fate full of wealth 
as it is ? Meru pleases me not, though it is filled with an 
abundance of gold and silver, since it is satisfied with 
itself alone. 

17. The red colour of the lotus, the care for others dis- 
played by the good, the want of respect shown by the 
bad; this is the triad of qualities brought to perfec- 
tion in each class by means of its own innate disposi- 
tion. 

1 8. Faithfulness in promises is the noblest quality 

leanness is the best quality for a female 



20 NITI SATAKA. 

elephant ; wisdom and patience best become a Brahman. 
Each creature is best adorned by its own special ornament. 

19. It is better to fall from the highest point of a lofty 
mountain and be dashed to pieces among the rocks it is 
better that one's hand should be bitten by the poisonous ;i 
fangs of a dreadful serpent it is better to fall into the I 
fire, than that one's piety should fail. | 

20. If thou thinkest to behold noble-minded men fall 
from their firmness in misfortune, cease from evil efforts 
involving idle speculations. fool ! even at the end of 
ages the mighty mountains do not become small, nor does 
the ocean lose the powers that belong to it. 

21. Glory, conquering all things, tears the bosom of 
men, as an impudent and forward woman, with her nails 
long and sharp like swords. 

22. Even the moon, the storehouse of ambrosia, the 
guide of the plants which grow year by year, compacted of 
nectar and filled with beauty, becomes shorn of its beams 
directly it reaches the region of the sun. Who does not 
fall into contempt directly he enters the house of another ? 

23. Girls with glances of admiration, a house filled with 
magnificence, prosperity attended with outward signs of 
royalty these are a man's portion as long as fortune 
attends him ; but if that fails, all these things disappear, 
like the pearls on a necklace whose string has been broken 
in play. 



NOTES TO THE NlTI SATAKA. 

1. The second collection of S'atakas ascribed to Bhartrihari 
relates to Niti or Morality. The word Niti may be taken to 
mean " moral philosophy, ethics, precepts inculcating prudent 
or moral behaviour." These precepts are thrown into the pro- 
verbial form. The first sloka is occupied by the invocation or! 
salutation to Brahma, who is addressed as the deity, whose 
essence is self-knowledge, and by whom self-knowledge can 
alone be attained. This seems to refer to the doctrine which 
teaches the unity of the Supreme and the Individual Soul, 
since what we know when we know ourselves truly is the 
Brahma (Telang). 

2. By means of this sloka an attempt has been made to fix 
the authorship of the Niti &ataka on Bhartrihari. It is sup- 
posed that he was disgusted at some discovery of infidelity on 
the part of his wife, and in consequence resigned his royal 
position to his brother Vikrama. There is, however, little or 
no authority for the statement, and the sloka itself is too 
vague to found any theory of authorship upon it. The com- 
mentator says that King Vikrama gained possession of a 
certain fruit which conferred immortality on any one who ate 
it. Vikrama gave it to a Brahman, who gave it to King 
Bhartrihari. Bhartrihari gave it to his wife \ she gave it to 
her paramour ; the latter gave it to a lover of his own, in 
whose possession Bhartrihari saw the fruit. Such is the 
occurrence supposed to be recorded in this sloka. 

3. We may compare the ideas in this stanza with the words 
of St. Paul, " If any man think that he knoweth anything, he 
knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know " (i Cor. viii. 2), or 
the line, " A little learning is a dangerous thing," of Pope. 
Jndna-lava-dur-vidagdham, "(The man) puffed up through small- 
ness of knowledge." Durvidagdlia is explained by the com- 
mentator as garvishta, arrogant. 

4. Referring to the fable according to which crocodiles 
were supposed to have pearls between their teeth. 



22 NtTI SATAKA. 

5. Satavishdna, " the horn of a hare ; " proverbial for that 
which does not exist. Of. the following, given by Telang in 
his note on this passage 

"Esha bandhyasuto yati khapushpakritasekharah 
mriga trishnambhasi snatah sasasringadhanurdharah." 

" The son of a barren woman goes along, wearing a crown 
made from flowers that grew in the sky, bathing in a mirage, 
carrying a bow made of hare's horn." Bringing together all 
the most impossible things. With this sloka may be com- 
pared Prov. xxvii. 22, and Ecclus. xxi. and xxii. 

6. Vydla may be translated either " elephant" or " serpent." 

7. This stanza is the one in which the author shows the 
highest knowledge of the world. It is merely an elaborated 
form of the English proverb, "Speech is silver, silence is 
gold." The same idea runs through a good many verses of 
the Proverbs of Solomon, e.g., x. 19, "In the multitude of 
words there wanteth not sin." So also xiii. 3, xvii. 27. Of. 
Ecclus. xx. 1 8, 19, 20. Orientals always seem to have re- 
garded talkativeness as an evil and a sign of folly. "The 
empty pitcher makes the most sound." 

8. Kinchid-jna, " knowing somewhat," is explained by Telang 
to refer not to the speaker's estimate of himself at the time of 
his " blindness," but to the view he takes of himself after his 
" intoxication " has left him. " When I knew (that which now 
I know was but) a little," is the idea to be conveyed. 

9. As a dog prefers the carrion which he has before him to 
any sight however magnificent, so the fool keeps his eyes fixed 
on himself and his small acquirement, and 

10. Continually falls lower and lower in the scale of in- 
tellect. 

12-13. Cf. P S - xlviii. 20 (Vulg.) : "Homo, cum in honore 
esset, non intellexit ; comparatus est jumentis insipientibus, 
et similis factus est illis." For bhuvi bhdrabhdtdh, cf. Iliad, 
xviii. 104 : aXX' ?],aa/ cra^a VTJIKT/ Vcuff/ov a%8o$ aeoucqz. 

14. Cf. Prov. xvii. 12. 

15. With this sloka begins the section or chapter relating 
to wisdom. Cf. Hitopadesa, Mitrabhedah, 66, 71, 72, for ideas 
similar to those contained in the last line of this s"loka. 



NITI SATAKA. 23 

1 6. Kalpa-anta, the end of a kalpa, the destruction of 
the world. A kalpa is supposed to be a day and night of 
Brahma, and to equal 4,320,000,000 years of men. After the 
creation of the world, it is supposed to remain unaltered for 
one of Brahma's days, a period of 2,160,000,000 years of men. 
The world, and all that it contains, is then destroyed by fire, 
only the gods, sages, and elements surviving. On Brahma's 
awaking after his night, which lasts an equal number of years 
with the day, he repeats the process of creation. This goes 
on continually until his existence of a hundred years is 
brought to an end, when he, the gods, the sages, and the 
whole universe are resolved into their constituent elements. 

17. Abhi- nava - mada - lekhd - sydma-gandha-sthahdndm vdrand- 
ndm, "Elephants, the surface of their cheeks dark through the 
lines of mada (flowing freshly)." Abhinava, &c., Bahuvrilii 
comp. qualifying vdrandndm. 

1 8. The Scholiast says on this sloka, " Yo yasya svabhavi- 
kah sadgunah tad gunam na ko 'pi hartum saknoti," " No one 
can take away the virtue of him who is virtuous in his natural 
disposition." Bohlen says, "Dens ipse sapienti adimere non 
potest doctrinam ; . . . Brahma ipse nil valet adversus fatum 
(vidhi) et unum ipsi negatum est, ut infecta reddat quse </>u<r/xw; 
menti quasi fuerint inusta." The latter part of this sloka 
refers to a supposed faculty of the swan for separating milk 
from water which has been previously mixed in the act of 
drinking it, which has passed into a proverb. Regnaud re- 
marks, " Prejuge" sur 1'erreur duquel il est inutile d'iusister." 
Of. Sak. t " Hanso hi kshtram adatte tanmisra varjayatyapah," 
" For the flamingo extracts (takes) the milk (and) leaves behind 
the water that is mixed with it." The Hindus imagine that 
the hansa or flamingo has the power of separating milk from 
water (Sak., Mon. Williams, p. 266 note). Prof. M. Williams 
quotes this sloka of Bhartrihari in his note in ak., and con- 
tinues, " This reference is probably to the milky juice of the 
water-lily, which would be its (the hansa's) natural food, and 
to which allusion is often made by the Hindu poets." 

19-20. Cicero (pro. Arch., c. 7) has a sentiment somewhat 
similar to that contained in these slokas : " Heec studia adoles- 
centiam alunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant, 



24 NIT I SATAKA. 

adversis perfugium ac solatium praebent ; delectant domi, non 
impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, peregrinantur, rustican- 
tur." Of. Prov. xii. i. 

21. Some editors have vackanena, "what is the use of 
words 1 " If the reading kavachena be taken, it means, " what 
is the use of armour 1 " trans, by Eegnaud, " la patience est une 
cuirasse." The man who has enemies within, i.e., the passions, 
can have no worse enemies to fear. The passions or faults of 
the mind are six in number desire, wrath, covetousness, be- 
wilderment, pride, and envy. Shad-varga, the aggregate of six 
things, is the appellation given to them (Mon. Williams' Lex., 
under Shad-mrga). The end of the last line, sukavitd yadasti 
rdjyena kirn? "If theje is good poetry, what need of a kingdom?" 
seems to mean that the man who is learned and intelligent 
has no need of external things to produce or add to his hap- 
piness. 

22. Enumerates the virtues which a man must practise if 
he would live happily. Kald, in 1. 4, signifies here "qualities," 
referring to the virtues enumerated in the preceding lines. 

23. Sinchate vdche satyam, "pours truth into the speech," or 
" impregnates the speech with truthfulness." 

24. Kavisvardh, "learned poets;" lit "kings of poets." 
Cf. sloka 12. Rasa-siddhah = vfQ\\ versed in or conversant 
with the poetical rasas or affections, accomplished in poetry 
(Mon. Williams' Lex., Rasas). The poetical rasas are ten : 
sringdra, love ; vira, heroism ; bibhatsa, disgust ; raudra, anger ; 
hdsya, mirth ; bhaydnaka, terror ; karuna, pity ; adbhuta, won- 
der; sdnta, tranquillity; vdtsalya, paternal fondness. 

27. This stanza is quoted in Mudrdrdkshasa, act ii. (p. 79, 
Majumdar's series), trans, by Wilson : 

..." Obstacles foreseen 
Deter the poor of spirit from an enterprise ; 
Some, more adventurous, but not all resolved, 
Commence, and stop midway ; but noble minds 
Like thine, by difficulties warned, defy 
Repeated checks, and in the end prevail." 

28. Even in adversity the foot must be constant; vipady- 



SATAKA. 25 

uchchaih stheyam = one must retain dignity in misfortune 
(Telang) ; uchchaih-steya = firmness of character. 

30. This sloka occurs at Hitop., Sulridbheda, 39. 

31. Fadana-udara-darsanam-kurute, "makes the showing of 
the interior of his mouth." Of. Hitop., Subridbheda, 40. 

32. Parivartini samsdre, "while he passes from one birth to 
another," or while transmigrations go on ; parivartini means 
" revolving, constantly recurring." This sloka occurs in Hitop., 
Introd., 14, the order of the lines being reversed. On this 
Bohlen remarks in his notes to the Niti &ataka, that in the 
Arabic translation of the Indian fables known as Kalilah and 
Dimnah, there verses have been altered to avoid suggesting 
the doctrine of metempsychosis. Cf. Hitppadesa, Mitraldbha, 
114. 

33. Also Uttarardmacharita 

" Naisargiki surabhinah kusumasya siddha 

murdhni sthitir na charanair avatadanani." 
" The fitting place for the sweet-smelling flower is on the 
head, not to be trodden under foot." Uttararamacharila, act i. 
(p. 10 of Majumdara's series, Calcutta, 1874). 

34. The fable to which this sloka refers is as follows : After 
the deities had produced the amrita by churning the ocean, 
Rahu by a stratagem introduced himself among them, and 
drank some of it. The deities of the sun and moon discovered 
the theft, and told Vishnu, who cut off his head. The ami-it 
had, however, made him immortal, and he was therefore placed 
among the stars, where he periodically shows his displeasure 
at the way in which the sun and moon behaved by swallow- 
ing them. This is supposed to take place whenever an eclipse 
occurs of either the sun or moon. 

35. Phand-phalaka-sthitam, "placed on the flat surface of his 
hood." 

36. The explanation for this stanza may be supplied from 
the fable which represents Indra as cutting off the wings of 
the mountains. Mainaka, the son of Himalaya, took refuge in 
the ocean and so escaped. In the Puimdyana he is supposed 
himself to relate the circumstance to Hanuman : 

"Formerly the mountains were winged, and flew through 
the heaven as swiftly as the wind. And as they flew hither 



26 NtTI SATAKA. 

and thither, gods and men were filled with fear lest they might 
fall. Then Indra, filled with wrath, cut off the wings of the 
mountains with his thunderbolt. And as he approached me, 
brandishing his weapon, I was cast down into the ocean by 
the mighty Pavana. And my wings being concealed, I was 
helped by your father and took refuge in the ocean." Ramd- 
yana, v. 8. 

In the Bhattikavya, viii. 8, the line occurs " Pitra samrak- 
shitam sakrat sa mainakadrim aikshata," " He (Hanuman) 
saw the mountain Mainaka which had been saved from Indra 
by his own father." 

Cf. also Raghuv. 

" Pakshachchhida gotrabhidattagandhah 
saranyam enam sataso mahidhrah 
nripa ivopaplavinah parebhyah 
dharmottaram madhyamamasrayante." 

" The mountains by hundreds fled to him for refuge when 
their pride had been taken from them by Indra, when he cut 
off their wings; as kings assailed by enemies fly to that 
king among them who is distinguished for his honour." 
Raghuv., xiii. 7. 

Cf. also " Pakshachchhedodyatam sakram silavarshiva par- 
vatah," " As a mountain sending forth a shower of stones 
(attacks) Indra who is approaching to cut off its wings." 
Raghuv., iv. 40. 

Cf. &\soKumara Sambhava "Asutasanagavadhupabhogyam 
mainakamambho nidhibaddha sakhyam kruddhe' pi paksha- 
chchhidi vritrasakravavedanajnam kulisakshatanam," "She 
brought forth Mainaka, the delight of the daughter of the 
serpents, who made an alliance with Ocean, and so, though 
the enemy of Vritra was angry, knew not the stroke of the 
thunderbolt when the wings of the mountains were cut off." 
Kum. Sam., i. 20. 

Bhartrihari in this stanza appears to bring forward Mainaka 
as an example of want of firmness. It would have been better 
for him to meet his fate with resignation and firmness than to 
have fled, since his father Himalaya had been overpowered. 

37. Savitur-ina-lcdntah. Ina, from root in, means "power- 
ful," "mighty," "glorious:" so a name of the sun. Some 



SATAKA. 27 

readings, however, savitur-ati-kantdk, " exceedingly beloved by 
the sun." Cf. &ak., 41 : 

" Sparsanukula iva suryakantas 

tadanyatejo 'bhibhavadvamanti." 

"That (energy), like sun crystals (which are) cool to the 
touch, they put forth from (being acted upon) by the opposing 
influence of other forces." M. Williams, &ak, p. 74. 

39. With this sloka begins the section relating to riches. 
Abhijana means, in this passage, " caste," or, according to 
Telang, "nobility of birth," as in Sabuntald: "Abhijana- 
vato bhartuh slaghye sthita grihinipade," ' ; Stationed in the 
honourable post of wife to a nobly-born husband." $ak., 
Mon. Williams, p. 175, note. 

For the idea contained in this sloka, cf. Prov. x. 15. The 
silam sailatatdt, " one's virtue may fall from a mountain slope," 
is contained a play upon the \vords sild, a "stone," saila, 
" stony," and silam, " disposition." 

42. Sanga, translated "society," with the idea of "attach- 
ment to objects of sense," the detachment from all worldly 
desires being the devotee's chief aim. 

44. Mada-kshino-ndgah, " the elephant is weakened by the 
flow of mada." All the things mentioned do not lose their 
beauty or glory through the diminution of their powers or 
their resources ; a noble man who has given away his riches 
is not less noble because he is poor in consequence of his 
liberality. 

45. Sprihayati, "longs for," followed by dative prasrite, 
which the commentator explains by tusha, which means 
" grain," but the ordinary meaning of prasrite is a " handful." 
The meaning of this sloka, as explained by Telang, is as fol- 
lows : " Since in different states of life the same things are 
regarded as great or small, therefore it must be concluded 
that it is the state of life which causes the things to appear 
so." The word kalayate (kal) means in this place " to consider 
or reckon." 

46. The comparison between the earth and a cow is a com- 
mon one among the Hindus ; in fact, the word go means both 
the earth and a cow (cf. 7^). Among other passages the 
following may be referred to : ". . . Yathaiva mama Kama- 



28 NtTI SATAKA. 

dhuk," "Just as Kamadhuk is mine." Nala, ii. 18, where 
Kamadhuk, the cow of plenty, is a figurative way of speaking 
of the earth which supplies all desires. And "Dudoha gam 
sa yajnaya sasyaya maghava divam," " He milked (exhausted) 
the earth for the sake of sacrifices, Indra the heaven to give 
the people food." Eaghuv., i. 26. Tena is used as correlative 
to yadi by an unusual construction (Telang). 

47. This sloka occurs in Hitopadesa, Mitrabheda, 182. Bohlen 
in his note on this passage refers to the character of Vasanta- 
sena in the Mrichchhakatikd as a well-known typical character 
among the Hindus, equally famous with Phryne, Lais, &c., of 
the Western world. 

49. Man's life is predestined by fate, and the amount of 
enjoyment that he has is in proportion to his own capacity 
for enjoyment. Mount Meru is the Hindi! equivalent for 
Olympus. It is generally used as a synonym for a wealthy 
place. " Vittavatsu kripanam vrittim vritha ma krithah," " Do 
not vainly act an envious part towards the rich." Cf. " Kuru 
priyasakhivrittim sapatnijane," " Act the part of a dear friend 
towards thy fellow- wives." SaL, M. Williams, p. 173 and 
note. 

50-51. A dialogue supposed to take place between the 
chataka, a bird fabled to live solely on the drops of rain, and 
the rain-cloud. The moral of the fable is contained in the 
last line of sloka 51. It is no use to ask favours of mean 
persons. 

52. The section with which this sloka begins sets forth 
the characteristic marks of the wicked man. 

53. Cf. Hitopadesa, Mitraldbha, 90, for this sloka. 

54. "Branded," ankitah. The virtues of the good are 
branded as vices by evil-disposed persons. Cf. the Greek 
proverb, " <I>a<r/V xaxisrovs e/7 croi/TjPo/ rov; xaXovs." 

55. Cf. sloka 1 8. The general drift of these two slokas 
appears to be the same. For the sentiment in line 4 
" Apayaso yad asti kim mrityuna?" "If there be disgrace, 
what need of death?" i.e., one should prefer death to dis- 
grace, cf. Hor., Car. iii. 5 (the speech of Regulus). 

56. "These are the seven thorns in my mind." Salya 
meaning a "dart," "arrow," "thorn," and secondarily "em- 



NtTI SATAKA. 29 

barrassment " or ''distress," is not uncommonly used to express 
this idea. Cf. English proverb, " A thorn in one's side ; " 
also 2 Cor. xii. 7. Mukham-anaJcsharam svdkriteh, lit. " the 
inarticulate mouth of (one having) a handsome form." 

58. This sloka occurs in Hitopadesa, Mitrabheda, 25. 

60. With this sloka may be compared Prov. iv. 1 8. 

62. With this sloka the section begins in which the charac- 
teristics of virtue are described. 

63. This sloka is given in Hitopadesa, Mitralabha, 32. Vdk- 
patuld - " skill or ability in speech," " eloquence." " The 
desire of glory." The readings differ between abhirdte and 
abhiruchi. Bohlen makes a distinction between these two 
words, but they both contain the same idea of pleasure in a 
thing desire after it. The Scripture, ruti, "that which 
has been heard or revealed," as the Veda ; the Smriti, 
" that which has been handed down by tradition ; " such as 
the laws of Manu. 

64. "Cheerful hospitality to strangers" (sambhramavidhih) , 
lit. " preparations conducted in a hurried manner, with the 
view of honouring a guest." Upakritih, " assistance," "favour," 
meaning here the favours which others have granted, in op- 
position to kritva priyam, "the kindness one has done one- 
self." Asidhdrd vratam, "the vow to stand on the edge of a 
sword," used as a proverb to express a task which is impos- 
sible. 

65. Prakrit i-mahat, "great in nature" (tat purusha comp). 
Cf. Srutimahat (Sak., 199), "great in the knowledge of the 
Veda." 

66. For the sentiment contained in this sloka cf. Prov. 
x. 25, "The righteous is an everlasting foundation;" also 
Hor., Car. iii. 3 

" Justum ac tenacem propositi virum 
IS r on civium ardor prava jubentium, 
Non voltus instantis tyranni 

Mente quatit solida, neque Auster. 

Dux inquieti turbidus Hadrise, 
Nee fulminantis magna manus Jovis, 
Si fractus illabatur orbis, . 
Impavidum ferient ruinse." 



30 NfTI SATAKA. 

Mahd-sailctr&ld-sanghdta-kakartam = hard as the collected stones 
of a large mountain. 

67. Svdte = Arcturus, also any conspicuous constellation. The 
disposition of men is ranged in three degrees of an ascending 
scale, developing or the reverse according to their surround- 
ings and the atmosphere in which they live : first, the dis- 
position which produces no results is like the drop of water 
on hot iron, which leaps off the instant it touches the metal; 
next, the moderately good disposition is compared to the drop 
of water on the lotus-leaf, a beautiful object to look at ; and 
lastly, the very good disposition to the pearl which is not 
only beautiful, but valuable. The ideas in this sloka rather 
suggest the parable of the talents (St. Matt. xxv. 15). 

68. Of. Prov. x. i. 

69. Khydpayantah, translated " display," means " to declare," 
" make known." The second half of the line appears to mean 
" those who make the fact of their own virtues evident by the 
manner in which they estimate the virtue of others." 

70. This sloka commences the section treating of liberality 
and benevolence. 

This sloka occurs in Qakuntald, M. Williams, p. 195, 
where, instead of udgamaih, the word dgamaih is used : there 
is perhaps no difference in their meanings. 

71. Cf. sloka 55. The ideas contained in these slokas may 
suggest i Pet. iii. 3, 4, also Prov. i. 9. 

73. The idea and simile expressed in the first line of this 
sloka is to be found in ak, M. Williams, p. 213 : "Kurnu- 
danyeva sasankah savita bodhayate pankajanyeva," " The 
moon awakes (expands) the night-lotuses only ; the sun, the 
day-lotuses only." The " kumuda" of this passage in feakun- 
tald corresponds with the kaisava (a lotus blossoming by moon- 
light) of Bhartrihari ; pankaja with padma, the word used by 
Bhartrihari. The lotus called pankaja or padma is red, while 
the kumuda or kaisava is white. Bohlen on this passage refers 
to Hit., Mitraldbha, 63: "Na hi samharate jyotsnam chan- 
draschandalavesmani," "The moon does not withhold light 
even from the house of a Chandala ; " cf. also St. Matt. v. 45. 

75. The bond of friendship is represented in this sloka 
under the figure of milk and water. The water, by itself 



NlTI SATAKA. 31 

tasteless, receives sweetness of flavour from the milk, and there- 
fore, as if in return for this benefit which it has received, is 
the first to boil over and rush into the hostile flames. The 
milk then follows the water, and, combined together, they 
extinguish the fire, their enemy. So friends acting together 
may overcome an enemy, even at the loss of their own lives. 
In Hit., Mitraldbha, 89, occurs the line : " Sutaptamapi pani- 
yam samayatyeva pavakam," " Water though well warmed 
extinguishes the fire," i.e., the water, though it has received 
heat from the fire, returns the kindness by extinguishing the 
flame, that is, by evil conduct. 

76. The sleep of Kesava or Vishnu is referred to in MaMt- 
mya Devi, Bk. i. sloka 49 : " Once the adorable lord Vishnu, 
at the end of a kalpa, had spread out S'esha for his couch 
on the world, which was covered with water, and was wrapped 
in the sleep of meditation." For the ocean as the refuge for 
the mountains, v. Niti ataka, sloka 29. The firmness of the 
ocean in retaining the submarine fire is mentioned in Chaura- 
panch., 50: " Ambhonidhirvahate duhsahabadavagnim," "The 
ocean keeps the submarine fire difficult to bear." 

Cf. ak., 56 "... harakopavahnis 

tvayi jvalatyaurva ivamburasau." 

" The fire of the wrath of S'iva burns in thee like the sub- 
marine fire in the ocean." 
Also Raghuv., ix. 82 

" Antarnivishtapadam atmavinasahetum 
sapam adadhajjvalanam aurvam ivamburasih." 

' He bore the curse, having a place in his mind, the cause of 
his death, even as the ocean (bears) the submarine fire flaming 
(in its interior)." 

The legend relating to the submarine fire, as given in the 
Harivansa, is as follows : A sage called Aurva produced by 
means of magic power a devouring fire from his thigh. In 
consequence the earth was in flames, when Brahma, to save 
creation, allotted the ocean to the son of Aurva (the fire) as a 
suitable dwelling. The ocean was also the abode of Brahma, 
and from it, he and the submarine fire come forth at the end 



32 NtTI SATAKA. 

of each age to consume the world, and at the final consum- 
mation of all things to consume also the gods and demons. 
Vide Niti Sataka, sloka 13. 

78. "How many noble men there are in the world, pure 
in thought, word, and deed ! " Expecting the answer, 
" But few." Of. Bhagavad., vii. 3 : " Manushyanam sahas- 
reshu kaschid yatati siddhaye," "Among thousands of men, 
who strive after perfection ?" (Answer, "But few.") Of. 
also BhagavadgUa, xvii. 24 et seq. 

So. With this sloka begins the section on the praise of 
firmness or constancy. 

8 1. Cf. Bhagavad., ii. 15 

" Yam hi na vyathayanty ete purusham, purusharshabha, 
samaduhkhasukham dhiram so'mritatvaya kalpate." 

" The man whom these things (external things) do not affect, 
(0 noblest of men), being the same in pain and pleasure, and 
firm, he is fit for immortality." 

84. This sloka, beginning the section on the power of fate 
or destiny, is pure fatalism. Everything, both in divine 
affairs as well as human, is represented as moving according 
to an irresistible law, the law of fate. 

The " basket " (karanda) is explained by Telang as the place 
in which the snake-charmer keeps his snakes. " Meeting with 
the same fate," " tena eva yatah patha," went by the same 
route as the rat, i.e., died. 

85. " The misfortunes of good men," sddhuvrittdndm vipat- 
tayah. Telang points out on this passage that there is a 
play on the word sddhuvritta. It means "well rounded," as 
applied to the ball, and " of good conduct," as applied to 
men. Cf. Ntti Sataka, Mis. S'at., 13. 

87. Cf. Job xiv. 7, "There is hope of a tree, if it be cut 
down, that it will sprout again, and that the tender branch 
thereof will not cease;" also Hor., Car. iv. 7; though both 
the writer of the Book of Job and Horace seem to draw a 
different conclusion from the writer of this S'ataka. The 
tree will sprout again, but "man dieth and wasteth away; 
yea, man giveth up the ghost, and where is he?" Horace 
says 



NtTI SATAKA. 33 

" Nos ubi decidimus . . . 
Quo pater ^Eneas, quo dives Tullus et Ancus 
Pulvis et umbra sumus." 

91. For this sloka, cf. Hitopadesa, Mitrddbliali, 52. For 
Rahu, cf. Niti Sataka, sloka 27. 

92. Tdvat = prathamam, according to commentator, "Fate 
first creates, &c., and then destroys." 

"An excellent man" (purusharatna, lit. "a jewel of a 
man"), ratna, used commonly with nouns to express their 
extreme excellence. 

93. As to the power of fate, cf. Hitopadesa, Mitraldbhah, 
152 " Chakravat parivartante duhkhani cha sukhani cha." 
"Like a wheel, pains and pleasures revolve." Also in the 
MeghadHUa, sloka 109, translated by Wilson 

" Life, like a wheel's revolving orb, turns round, 
Now whirled in air, now dragged along the ground." 

The expression may find a parallel in Anacreon, xxxiii. 7 

yao oiot, 



The power of destiny is recognised under a slightly different 
figure in the lines of Horace, Car. i. 34, 14 

"... hinc apicem rapax 
Fortuna cum stridore acuto 
Sustulit, hinc posuisse gaudet." 

Or in Car. iii. 10, 10, where in 

" Ne currente retro funis eat rota," 

an allusion has been thought to exist to the wheel of 
fortune. 

94. The section relating to religious works begins with this 
sloka. The meaning of the stanza is as follows : Man should 
give himself up to the works of religion, to study of the Scrip- 
ture, to the exercise of liberality, to the instruction and the 
benefiting others ; he should offer sacrifice to the deities and 

C 



34 Nfrl SATAKA. 

the manes ; for these works will produce happiness for him in 
a future state, and are not in the power of destiny or fate, as 
all other things are, including even the deities themselves. 
On the idea that the gods are in the power of destiny, cf. 
Eurip., Alcestis, 965 : 

ov&lv 



xa/ yuo Zwc o ri 
ouv aol rovro 



95. Continuation of the ideas in preceding sloka. For 
Brahma working in the egg, cf. Manu, i. 9, 12, 13. The Ava- 
tars or incarnations of Vishnu have been extended from ten to 
twenty-two. Those usually recognised are i. Matsya, as the 
fish ; 2. Kurma, the tortoise ; 3. Varaha, the boar ; 4. Nara- 
sinha, the man-lion; 5. Vamana, the dwarf; 6. Parasu 
Rama, Rama with the axe ; 7. Rama or Rama Chandra, son 
ofDasaratha; 8. Krishna; 9. Buddha; 10. Kalki, the white 
horse. The first three of these incarnations are apparently 
connected with some Hindu traditions of the Deluge ; that 
of Varaha, or the boar, is referred to Ntti Sataka, Mis. Sat., 3. 
S'iva (according to the fable) was supposed to have killed the 
sons of a Brahman, and was compelled to wander for twelve 
years as a mendicant bearing the skull of one of his victims in 
his hand. This is referred to in the Sringdra at., 64, where 
it is said that persons who insult the god of love by want of 
susceptibility or reluctance are punished by being turned into 
ascetics, and pass their lives as Kapalikas, i.e., worshippers of 
S'iva, who carry skulls which they use as the mendicant's jar 
in which to collect their food. 

99. Cf. Prov. xxv. 1 8 ; Eccles. vii. 8. Salt/a tulyah, " equal 
to or like an arrow." 

100. " A field of kodrava." Kodrava is a common kind of 
grain eaten by the poor, Paspalum scrobiculatum. 

1 01. There is no escape from fate or destiny. This senti- 
ment is repeated usque ad nauseam throughout the whole of 
the Hitopadesa. Cf. however, Suhridbheda, 15, for a remark- 
able passage 



NtTI SATAKA. 35 

" Nakale mriyate janturviddhah saranasatairapi 
kusagrenaiva samprishta praptakalo na jivati." 

" A creature, though pierced by a hundred arrows, does not 
die if his time be not come ; but if the time of his death be 
near, he dies if pricked even by a blade of grass." 

1 06. The idea contained in the sloka occurs in Hit., Suhrid- 
bhedah, 67, in the following form 

" Kadarthitasyapi cha dhairyavritter 
buddher vinaso na hi sankaniyah 
adhah kritasyape tanurapato 
nadhah sikha yate kadachideva." 

" Loss of understanding is not to be apprehended in a man 
of firm conduct though he be troubled ; the flame of a fire 
which may have been overturned does not go downwards." 



MISCELLANEOUS S'ATAKAS. 

i. For the comparison of a woman to a plant, cf. Mrich., act 
i. 26 : "Ganika tvam margajata lataiva!" "Thou, a harlot, 
art like a creeper growing by the roadside." Also Catullus, 
Ixi. 34 

" Ut tenax hedera hue et hue 
Arborem implicat errans." 

3. The creator Prajapati took the form of a boar for the 
sake of raising the earth out of the waters. The Taittiriya 
Sanhitd says " This universe was formerly waters, fluid. On 
it Prajapati, becoming wind, moved. He saw this earth. Be- 
coming a boar, he took it up." The Eamdyana also says that 
Brahma became a boar and took up the earth." 

For Kahu, vide sloka 34. 

8. " The drum sends forth an agreeable sound," &c. The 
following may explain the allusion : The Mridanga is made of 
wood, and has two mouths. The right mouth is prepared 
with] black kharali (a mixture of ashes, red chalk, the tar of 
the Diospyros glutinosa, and parched rice) ; the left mouth is 
simply covered with leather. The players, before beginning 



36 NtTI SATAKA. 

to perform on it, anoint this end with an ointment made of 
flour. The meaning of the stanza seems to be, that as the 
drum sounds when struck by the man who has spread the 
flour ointment over it, so a man sends forth the praises of the 
patron who supplies him with benefits. 

TO. This stanza contains throughout a play upon words 
used in a double meaning ; the force of the expression is, 
however, untranslatable, except in the manner in which I 
have rendered them. Artham means " revenue " as applied 
to the minister of state, " meaning " as referring to the man 
of letters ; apasabdham " common rumours " as well as " vulgar 
expressions; a.nd.padam, "a place" (i.e., of fame) as well as 
" a quarter of a verse." 

13. Cf. Prov. xxiv. 1 6. The just man falleth seven times, 
and riseth up again ; but the wicked shall fall into mischief. 
Cf. Ntti SataTca, 85. 

14. The answer to the question proposed in this sloka is, 
" No ! for the swan is too noble a bird to indulge in such low 
practices." 



( 37 ) 



VAIRAGYA gATAKA. 

Concerning Renunciation. 

1. SALUTATION to the deity who is not definable in time 
or space, infinite, pure intelligence in incarnate form; 
who is peace and glory ; whose sole essence is self-know- 
ledge. 

The Evil Qualities of Desire. 

2. Learned men are eaten up with jealousy; mighty 
men are spoiled through pride ; the minds of some men 
are obscured through ignorance : therefore the eloquent 
teachings of science are neglected. 

3. When I look through the world, I see no profit in 
any action. The result of good actions makes me afraid 
when I reflect on them ; for the great enjoyments gained 
after long continuance in the practice of great virtues 
hinder men from perfect liberation, since they are at- 
tracted to objects of sense. 

4. I have dug up the earth to find treasure; I have 
smelted minerals; I have crossed the sea; I have con- 
ciliated kings with great effort ; I have spent my nights 
in a cemetery; I have laboured to acquire religious 
knowledge ; but my efforts are all in vain. Desire ! wilt 
thou not leave me ? 

5. I have wandered over lands crossed with difficulty, 
but I have gained no fruit ; I have put away from me my 
pride of family ; I have performed services that have 
profited me nothing ; I have cast off my self-respect, and 



38 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

have eaten like a crow in a stranger's house. But yet, 
desire! thou dost still increase, ever given to evil, and 
art never satisfied. 

6. I have suffered the abuse of evil men in hope of 
gain ; I have repressed my tears and forced laughter, 
though my heart was void; I have restrained my feel- 
ings ; I have bowed myself before fools. desire, foolish 
desire ! wilt thou lead me yet further ? 

7. Day by day our life slips away from us, while the 
sun rises and sets : our business is so great and weighty 
that the flight of time escapes us. We behold birth, pain, 
old age, ending in death, and yet we are not afraid. We 
are, as it were, intoxicated : we have drunk of the wine 
of infatuation. 

8. If one were to see his wife overcome by hunger, her 
garments old and torn, her children hanging round her, 
crying with pinched, unhappy faces ; though he might fear 
refusal and stammer in his speech, yet would he ask alms ; 
but he would not beg to satisfy his own wants. 

9. Our desire for pleasure fails; respect is no longer 
paid us by the world ; our equals in age have gone to 
Svarga; our friends whom we love even as ourselves will 
soon follow; we walk slowly, supported by a stick; our 
eyes are dim. Alas ! our body is subdued ; it trembles at 
the approach of death. 

10. It has been ordained by the Creator that the 
serpents shall gain their livelihood on air, without effort 
and without injury to others; the cattle have been 
created eating shoots of grass and lying on the ground. 
The same mode of living has been appointed for men 
who pass over the ocean of this world with subdued 
senses: men who seek to live in such a way as this 
continually go on to perfection. 

11. We have not meditated on the Supreme Being 
bringing future births to an end : we have not, through 
the energy of our righteousness, been able to open for 
ourselves the door of Svarga : we have not embraced a 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 39 

woman even in imagination. We have only (if our life 
has been spent thus) destroyed the tree of youth which 
our mother gave us, as though we had cut it down with 
an axe. 

1 2. We have gained no pleasure, but pleasure has taken 
us captive ; we have not practised penance, but we have 
suffered pain in the pursuit of earthly joys. Time never 
grows old, but our life passes away. 

13. We have pardoned injuries, but not for the sake of 
showing forgiveness ; we have abandoned the pleasures of 
home, but not because we were willing to cast them aside ; 
we have suffered pain from cold winds, but we have shrunk 
from penance because of its painfulness ; we have thought 
night and day on the acquisition of wealth, but we have 
given no thought to the Supreme Being; we have per- 
formed all the acts which the sages have prescribed for 
us, but we have gained no fruits. 

14. My face is covered with wrinkles, my head is grey, 
my limbs are feeble, but desire alone is ever strong in me. 

15. The same piece of sky which encircles the moon by 
night, that encircles the sun by day. Ah ! how great is the 
labour of both ! 

1 6. Objects of sense, however long they may be with 
us, must one day depart ; but there is this difference be- 
tween separating oneself from them and not giving them 
up. If they forsake us, we shall suffer unequalled pain 
and grief ; but if we forsake them of our own accord, we 
shall gain unending peace and happiness. 

The Miglity Power of Desire. 

17. Desire ceases in a man when self-restraint, developed 
by means of true discrimination, shines forth in him ; but 
the end of desire increases yet more and more in the lofty 
contact (with royal objects) : by this means even Indra 
himself, the king of the winds, is the prey of desire, inas- 
much as he is wretched because of the appetite which he 
feels for his royal position a position decrepit through age. 



40 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

The Great Distress caused ~by Love. 

1 8. A dog, wretched, worn out, lame, deaf, without a 
tail, and covered with sores, overcome with hunger, and 
with a piece of broken pot tied round his neck, still runs 
after his mate. Love destroys even that which is already 
dead. 

The Mighty Power of Objects of Sense. 

19. A man may live by begging; his food may be taste- 
less, only enough for one meal ; his bed may be the bare 
earth ; he may have no attendant but himself ; his clothes 
may be in a thousand pieces through age, hardly able to 
hold together. Alas ! even then objects of sense do not 
quit their hold over him ! 

Dispraise of Beauty. 

20. The beauties of a woman are praised by the elegant 
poets ; her breast is compared to two pots of gold, her face 
to the moon, her hips to the forehead of an elephant ; but 
yet the beauty of a woman does not merit praise. 

21. A moth may fall into the flame of a candle through 
ignorance ; a fish may take a piece of meat fastened to a 
hook, not knowing what it is ; but we who know perfectly 
the many entanglements of fortune yet do not give up our 
desire. Ah ! in what a thicket of error do we wander ! 

The Setting Forth of Evil Men. 

22. Lotus fibre is enough for our food ; water suffices for 
us to drink ; we may lie on the bare earth ; we may be 
clothed in bark raiment. I approve not the evil behaviour 
of bad men, whose senses are led astray through the thirst 
for gold. 

Setting Forth the States of Honour. 

23. This created world was ruled in former times by 
great sages ; by others afterwards it was cast away like 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 41 

straw, after they had conquered it : even now heroes rule 
fourteen divisions of the world. Whence then is the 
feverish desire that men have for a few cities ? 

24. Thou art a king : I am of the number of the spiritual 
teachers, honoured for my wisdom by the world. Thy 
riches are celebrated : my fame is celebrated by poets. 
Thus, giver of blessings ! there is not a great interval 
between us. Thou hast thy face averted from me, but 
yet I have no desire for thy favour. 

The Setting Forth of Freedom from Desire. 

25. Hundreds of princes always have been, and always 
are, incessantly disputing for the possession of earthly 
enjoyments, and still kings do not abandon pride in their 
possessions. Owners of the earth in their folly display 
delight in the acquirement of even the very smallest 
particle, while, on the contrary, they ought to manifest 
sorrow. 

26. This earth is but an atom of clay surrounded by 
the line of ocean. Kings have subdued it in hundreds 
of battles, and have divided it among themselves. These 
wicked, contemptible men might give or they might not : 
there is no wonder in that ! But shame on those low- 
minded persons who beg alms from them. 

The Description of Evil Servitude. 

27. I am not an actor ; I am not a courtesan ; I am not 
a singer ; I am not a buffoon ; I am not a beautiful woman : 
what have I to do with king's palaces ? 

28. Once wisdom was employed to gain relief from 
pain ; afterwards it began to be used for the attainment 
of pleasure. Now, alas! men who dwell on the earth 
plainly care nothing for the sacred wisdom, therefore day 
by day it goes farther from them. 



42 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

The Setting Forth of Egotism or Pride. 

29. That man is truly born great whose white skull 
is worn by Siva (the enemy of Kama) as an ornament 
lifted up on high. What means, then, this unequalled 
burden of pride which kings now display, who are wor- 
shipped by other men, intent solely on saving their royal 
lives ? 

30. Thou art the lord of wealth ; I of speech : thou art 
a hero in war ; my skill is shown in subduing the proud 
by the power of my eloquence: men bow down before 
thee, but they listen to me that their minds may be 
purified. If, king! thou hast no desire for me, still 
less is my desire for thee. 

3 1 . When I was possessed of a small amount of know- 
ledge, my mind was filled with pride, even as an elephant 
is blinded by passion, and I thought within myself that I 
knew everything. When I had learnt many things from 
wise men, I discovered my foolishness, and my mad ex- 
citement left me. 

Condition of Indifference. 

32. Time has gone by, passed without difficulty through 
the pleasing society of beautiful women. We are wearied 
through our long wanderings in the path of transmigra- 
tions. We lie on the banks of Siva's own river, and we in- 
voke him with piercing cries, calling " Siva ! Siva ! Siva ! " 

33. When honour has fled, when wealth is lost, when 
one's desire has departed and one has gained nothing; 
when one's relations are dead, one's friends have vanished, 
one's youth has faded by degrees : then there is only one 
thing left for a wise man a dwelling in a mountain cave, 
whose rocks are purified by the stream of the Ganges. 

34. Why, my heart, dost thou attempt day by day to 
conciliate the favour of others, bringing forth no fruit of 
thy toil ? Surely, if a purified will were in thee, all thy 
desires would be fulfilled, and there would be no need to 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 43 

pay court to other men, for thou wouldst be at rest in- 
wardly. 

The Path of Enjoyment. 

35. In health there is the fear of disease; in pride of 
family the fear of a fall ; in wealth the fear of the king ; 
in honour the fear of abasement ; in power the fear of 
enemies ; in beauty the fear of old age ; in the scrip- 
tures the fear of controversy ; in virtue the fear of evil ; 
in the body the fear of death. Everything on earth is 
beset by fear ; the only freedom from fear is in the renun- 
ciation of desire. 

36. What have we not attempted for the sake of those 
lives of ours which are as unstable as the drop of water 
on the lotus-leaf ? Even we commit sin by boasting of 
our own virtues shamelessly before those rich men whose 
minds are senseless through the intoxicating power of 
wealth. 

37. Homage be to time ! The delights of the city, the 
great king with his crowds of courtiers, the counsellors 
which stand before him, the women with faces beautiful 
as the moon, the assembly of haughty princes, the bards, 
the reciters these are all borne away by time, and be- 
come but a memory. 

Setting Forth of Kdla. 

38. Those from whom we were born have long since 
departed ; they also with whom we grew up exist only 
in memory: we too, through the approach of death, 
become, as it were, trees growing on the sandy bank of 
a river. 

39. In the house where there were many, now there is 
but one ; where there was but one, there were many, and 
then again but one. So Kala and Kali toss day and 
night backward and forward as though they were dice, 
and play with men on the chessboard of this world as if 
they were chessmen. 



44 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

40. Shall we dwell beside the divine river in a life of 
penance? or shall we desire the society of virtuous 
women? or shall we study the multitude of the scrip- 
tures, whose poetry is even as nectar ? We know not 
what we shall do, seeing the life of man endures but the 
twinkling of an eye. 

41. Surely the retreats amid the Himalayas, where the 
Vidy ad haras dwell among the rocks cooled by the spray 
of the Ganges, must have ceased to exist, since men enjoy 
that sustenance which they have gained from others to 
their own disgrace. 

42. When may we sit at peace on the banks of the 
heavenly river, whose banks of sand are dazzling white in 
the moonlight ? and when shall we, when the nights are 
perfectly still, wearied with the satiety of the world, 
utter cries of " Siva ! Siva ! Siva ! " while the tears flow 
from our eyes ? 

43. Mahadeva is the god we worship, and this river is 
the heavenly river ; these caves are the dwelling, the abode 
of Hari. Kala, moreover, is our friend, and the rule of life 
which we observe has freedom from humiliation. What 
more need I say on this matter ? 

44. The Ganges falls from heaven on the head of Siva ; 
from the head of Siva on to the mountain ; from the top of 
the mountain to the earth, always falling lower and lower : 
even in so many ways is the fall of one whose judgment 
has departed from him. 

45. Desire is like a river. Its waters are men's wishes, 
agitated by the waves of desire ; love takes the place of 
crocodiles ; the birds that fly about it are the doubts which 
haunt the mind. The tree of firmness growing on the 
bank is washed away by the flood; the whirlpools of 
error are very difficult to cross : the lofty banks are the 
cares of life. The ascetics who, pure in heart, have suc- 
ceeded in crossing it successfully, are filled with joy. 

46. As we look at the ever-changing three worlds, the 
desire hidden with us, violently attracted towards objects 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 45 

of sense, ceases to cross the path of our eyes or to enter 
into the way of our ears ; for we have subdued the 
objects of sense which produce desire in us, and hold 
them bound by devotion, as an elephant attracted by his 
mate is kept from her by being tied to a post. 

47. My days once seemed long when I used to suffer 
pain through asking favours from rich men, and they 
seemed too short for me to carry out all my aims, filled as 
they were with the desire for earthly objects. Now I sit 
on a stone in a mountain cave, and in the intervals of my 
meditation I am filled with laughter at the recollection of 
my former life. 

48. Wisdom has not been gained free from spot ; wealth 
has not been acquired ; reverence towards our elders has 
not been practised by us ; we have not even dreamt of love. 
If this has been our existence, then have we lived a life 
even like the life of a crow, which hungers for the food of 
others. 

49. When all our wealth is gone, then with hearts full 
of tenderness, recollecting how the path of action in the 
world leads to evil, we in a sacred grove, with the rays of 
the autumn moon shining on us, will pass our nights 
occupied alone in meditation, at the feet of Siva. 

50. I am satisfied with bark clothing ; thou takest plea- 
sure in thy magnificence : there is no difference between 
the contentment of both of us. The man whose desires 
are unlimited is poor indeed ; who that is satisfied with 
what he has can be either rich or poor ? 

51. Eelaxation from toil at one's own will, food gained 
without degradation, friendship with noble-minded men, 
a mind not agitated by contact with external things 
this is the result of the highest vow of tranquillity. I 
know not, though I have carefully thought thereupon, by 
what strict penance this perfect state may be gained. 

52. The hand serves for a cup; food is gained by beg- 
ging ; the sky with its pure expanse serves for a garment ; 
the earth is a couch. Those whose freedom from attrac- 



46 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

tion to objects of sense has been brought to such perfec- 
tion as this are fortunate, contented in their own minds, 
and they uproot action, casting away all the many forms of 
pain which attend upon it. 

53. Masters are difficult to please; kings change from 
one thing to another in their minds with the swiftness of 
horses ; our desires are great, and our minds aim at high 
things. Old age consumes our bodies ; death puts an end 
to our lives. my friends ! there is no glory in this world 
for a wise man but that which he gains by penance. 

54. Pleasure is like the lightning that flashes in the 
canopy of cloud ; life is like the fleeting clouds that are 
torn asunder by the storm ; the ardent desires of the young 
are transitory. wise men ! you who know the uncer- 
tainty of human affairs, gain wisdom by meditation on the 
Supreme Spirit ; for perfection is easily gained by means 
of constant contemplation. 

55. A man who is wise and understanding, being pained 
by hunger, will go from door to door throughout the huts 
of a sacred village, and will beg alms where he sees the 
door-post blackened by the smoke of the sacrifices offered 
by the learned priests who dwell within ; and he will bear 
before him his pot covered with a white cloth : he will 
not live in misery from day to day among families as 
wretched as himself. 

56. "Are you a Chandala? are you a Brahman? are you 
a Sudra, or an ascetic, or a lord of devotion whose mind is 
skilled in meditating on the truth ? " Ascetics, when men 
ask them such questions as these with loud voices, feel 
neither pleasure nor anger, but pursue their course in 
quietness. 

57. my friend ! fortunate are those who have cast off 
the many bonds of this world, and from within whose minds 
desire for earthly objects, like the poison of a serpent, 
has departed. They spend the night, bright with the clear 
shining of the autumn moon, in the border of the forest, 
thinking on nothing but the greatness of their good fortune. 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 47 

58. Cease to wander wearily in the thicket of sense. 
Seek that better way which, in a moment, brings freedom 
from trouble. Unite thyself to the Supreme Spirit, and 
abandon thy own state as unsteady as the waves. Take 
no more pleasure in things perishable. Be calm, my 
heart ! 

59. my friend ! live on fruits and nuts, lie on the bare 
ground ; let us rise up and go into the forest clothed in 
new soft bark garments. In that retreat we shall not hear 
the voices of those rich men whose minds are blind through 
ignorance, and whose voices are troubled through the con- 
fusion of their minds. 

60. my mind ! let the delusion which envelops thee 
be cleared away, pay devotion to the god of the moon- 
crest, who takes delusion away from man. Fix your 
thought on the stream of the heavenly river. For what 
certainty is there [in earthly things], in waves and bubbles, 
or in flashes of lightning, or in women, or in the tongues 
of flame, or in serpents, or in the rushing of a stream ? 

6 1. If there are songs before thee, if there are elegant 
poets from the southern regions on one side of thee, if be- 
hind damsels bearing the fans with tinkling anklets, taste, 
my friend, the pleasures of sense which thou mayest gain 
from these things. If thou hast them not, then plunge, 
my mind ! into devout contemplation, freeing thee from all 
thought. 

62. Wise men ! have nothing to do with women who 
are only pleasing from their beauty, in whose society is a 
transitory delight. Eather follow after women who are 
compassionate, amiable, and intelligent : the beautiful 
forms of women adorned with tinkling jewels will not 
avail thee in Naraka. 

63. Abstinence from destroying life, keeping one's hands 
off another's wealth, speaking the truth, seasonable liber- 
ality according to one's power, not conversing with the 
wives of other men, checking the stream of covetousness, 
reverence towards spiritual fathers, compassion towards 



48 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

all creatures this is the path of happiness, violating no 
ordinances, taught in all the Sastras. 

64. mother Lakshmi! grant me yet further that I 
may not be filled with desire. May I not be filled with 
the longing after pleasure ! Now, purifying myself 
with a vessel of leaves joined together, may I gain my 
livelihood by means of the barley grain which I have 
begged. 

65. You were to me even as myself; I was as yourself 
to you. Such were our feelings to one another. How has 
it come about that we have been changed, and that we 
no more feel the same sympathy one for another ? 

66. woman ! why dost thou shoot forth at me those 
beautiful glances from thy half-opened eyes ? Cease ! 
cease ! Thy toil is in vain ! I am as it were changed ! 
My youth has departed from me ; my dwelling is in a 
forest ; my infatuation has left me. I look on the favours 
of this world only as so much grass. 

67. This woman, with eyes that have stolen the beauty 
of the lotus, unceasingly casts her glances towards me. 
What does she wish ? My infatuation has departed ; the 
arrows of cruel love, producing immoderate heat and fever, 
have left me. 

68. Is not a palace delightful to dwell in? are not 
songs charming to hear ? is not the society of friends, whom 
we love as our own lives, alluring ? Yet wise men retire 
away from all these things into the forest, considering 
them like the light of a lamp which burns unsteadily 
through the wind of the wings of a wandering moth. 

69. Are there no more roots growing in the caves ; have 
the mountain torrents/ ceased to flow ; do the trees no 
longer bear fruit ; has the bark with which you may gain 
your clothing withered on the trees, that you cast off 
your self-respect and fall down before haughty men, who 
have gained a little wealth with difficulty, and who regard 
you with supercilious contempt ? 

70. Surely the retreats of the Himalayas, the abode of 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 49 

the Vidyadharas, where the rocks are cooled by the spray 
of the Ganges, surely these places must have ceased to 
exist, since men enjoy food which they gain from others to 
their own disgrace. 

71. WhenMeru the magnificent mountain falls from its 
place, destroyed at the end of the age ; when the ocean, the 
abode of multitudes of great monsters, is dried up ; when 
the earth resting on her mountains comes to an end, how 
can there be any abiding-place for the body, which is as 
unstable as the ear of a young elephant ? 

72. When shall I, Siva ! whose drinking-cup is my 
hand, who have no garment but the sky, who live solitary, 
peaceful, free from desire, able to uproot action when 
shall I attain to union with the Supreme Soul ? 

73. Thou mayest have gained glory and the accomplish- 
ment of all thy desires : what further ? Thy foot may 
have been placed on the neck of thine enemies : what 
further ? Thou mayest have bestowed thy riches on thy 
friends : what further ? Thou mayest live thousands of 
years : what further ? 

74. One may have been clothed in rags : what then ? 
One may have worn a magnificent silk garment: what 
then ? One may have had only one wife : what then ? 
Or a retinue of horses and elephants and attendants : what 
then ? One may have enjoyed good fare : what then ? 
Or eaten poor food at the end of the day: what then? 
What matters either state if you know not the glory of 
the Supreme One who destroys all evils ? 

75. Thou hast paid worship to Siva; thou hast lived in 
fear of death and birth in a future state ; thou hast detached 
thyself from love for thy own family ; thou hast not been 
blinded by love ; thou hast dwelt in a forest apart from 
men ; thou hast been freed from the evil contact of the 
world. [If thou hast passed thy life thus], then thou hast 
vairagya freedom from attachment to outward things. 

76. Meditate on the Supreme Being, who is eternal, 
who grows not old, above all things, expanding by his 

D 



50 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

own will. What profit is there in the delusions of the 
world ? If a man be truly seeking unity with the Supreme 
Being, all earthly pleasures and powers seem worthy only 
of the notice of low-minded men. 

77. mind! thou canst enter Patala,thou canst skim over 
the heaven and cross the breadth of this world in a moment 
of thought. How is it that thou dost not even by accident 
meditate on the Supreme Being, who is spotless, dwelling 
within himself ? So thou mightest gain tranquillity. 

78. We, as men devoid of intelligence, think within 
ourselves that day and night repeat themselves indefinitely ; 
and so we run each to our tasks unswervingly, and we 
take up each separate work where we laid it down. Alas ! 
how is it that we are not ashamed of our folly ? We endure 
the torments of this world while we are wholly occupied 
in enjoying the same objects of sense over and over again. 

79. The earth is his delightful couch, the arms of the 
creepers are his pillow, the heaven is his canopy, the winds 
his fan, the moon is his twinkling lamp. The sage, rejoic- 
ing because he has been freed from desire, lives in peace 
and happiness, as though he were the lord of the universe. 

80. The man who has gained great power finds even 
the sovereignty of the universe tasteless. Do not seek 
pleasure in the enjoyment which comes from flattery, 
dress, or feasting ; for the only delight which is supreme 
is everlasting, and continually grows. Seize upon it, for, 
compared to the sweetness of that, all the three worlds are 
devoid of pleasure. 

8 1. What profit is there in the Vedas, or in the Smriti, 
or in the reading of Puranas and the tedious Sastras, or 
in the bewildering multitude of ceremonial acts which 
lead to an abode in the tabernacles of heaven ? All else 
is as the mere haggling of merchants, in comparison with 
the final fire which will consume the creations of this 
wearisome burden of sorrow called existence, that fire 
which will make us enter into the sphere of joy and unite 
us with the Supreme Soul. 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 51 

82. Life is as uncertain as the waves of the sea; the 
glory of youth remains but a short time ; wealth passes 
away like a thought ; all the pleasure in the world endures 
but a lightning-flash through the heavens ; the embraces 
of your beloved whom you clasp to your breast will not 
be for long. Direct your thoughts to the Supreme Being ; 
for you must cross the sea of life with all its fears and 
alarms. 

83. How should a wise man be anxious after a small 
portion of this world ? Is the mighty ocean ever stirred 
up by the gambols of a little fish ? 

84. When the darkness of love had filled me with igno- 
rance, women seemed the only objects for which to live. 
Now, since I have anointed my eyes with the ointment 
of discrimination, the sight of all things has become 
clear to me, and I behold the three worlds as the Creator. 

85. Delightful are the rays of the moon; delightful the 
grassy places of the forest ; delightful the society of beloved 
friends ; delightful the tales of the poets ; delightful the 
face of one's beloved sparkling with the tear-drops of rage. 
But who cares any more for these delights when his mind 
reflects on their uncertainty ? 

86. An ascetic lives on alms, remote from men, self-con- 
trolled, walking in the path of indifference, giving or not 
giving, it matters not which. He is clothed in a torn 
cloak made from rags cast into the street ; he has no pride, 
no self-consciousness; he is free from desire; his sole 
pleasure is rest and quietness. 

87. earth, my mother ! wind, my father ! fire, 
my friend ! water, my consort ! sky, my brother 1 
I salute you with my hands joined. I am full of glory 
through the merit which I have gained through my union 
with you. may I enter into the Supreme Being ! 

88. As long as the tabernacle of the body is well and 
strong; as long as old age is far off; as long as the senses 
are unimpaired ; as long as there is no diminution of life ; 
so long will the wise man make great efforts to gain 



52 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

eternal glory for himself. What is the use of digging a 
well when the house is on fire ? 

89. We have not studied knowledge while upon the 
earth knowledge which tames the hosts of disputants 
and is suitable for a well-trained man : our fame has not 
been exalted to the skies by the sword-point which splits 
the hard forehead of the elephant ; we have not tasted the 
juice of the lower lip of the soft mouth of the beloved one 
at the time of moon-rising. Alas ! youth has passed 
fruitlessly, like a lamp in an empty house. 

96. In good men knowledge is the destruction of pride ; 
in others it is the cause of haughtiness : a solitary dwell- 
ing frees ascetics from attraction to objects of sense ; it 
is the cause of extreme attraction towards desire in those 
who are wounded by it. 

91. The desires in our own minds have faded: youth 
has passed into old age : even the very virtues in our own 
bodies have become barren since they are no longer recog- 
nised as virtues. What can we do ? All-powerful time 
is hastening on, and death is coming on us to end our 
lives. What can we do but resort to the feet of Siva ? 
There is no other means of salvation for us. 

92. When the mouth is dry, a man drinks water which 
is sweet to him ; when pained with hunger, he eats rice 
and other vegetables. But he is mistaken if he imagines 
that the removal of the pain caused by hunger and thirst 
is a pleasure. 

93. I will bathe in the waters of Ganges : I will 
honour thee, lord ! with pure fruits and flowers. I will 
meditate upon thee ; I will sit on a couch of stone in a 
mountain cave ; I will feed on fruits with peaceful mind ; 
I will reverence the voice of my spiritual father. When 
shall I, lying at thy feet, enemy of love ! by thy favour 
be freed from the pain of desire, seeking alone the path of 
meditation ? 

94. Thou whose bed is a slab of rock ; thou whose dwell- 
ing is a cave, whose clothes are the bark of trees, whose 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 53 

companions are the antelopes, whose food is the tender 
fruits, whose drink is water from the cascades, whose 
wife is the sciences : such as these are indeed the supreme 
lords ; they pay homage to no man. 

95. While there is the Ganges near us, whose rays kiss 
the head of Siva, and furnishes us abundant livelihood, 
with bark garments made from the banyan trees that 
grow on its banks, what sage would even look at the 
face of women as they sit filled with extreme misery, and 
with pain produced by the fever of calamity, unless he felt 
compassion for his distressed family ? 

96. If wise men forsake Benares, alas ! to what other 
place should they resort ? For in the gardens of Benares 
are manifold pleasures, and penances practised of exceed- 
ing difficulty; a small ragged piece of cloth is looked 
upon as a splendid garment, and food without end may be 
gained by begging. Death in that place is even as a festival. 

97. " Our lord sleeps ; now is the time for his rest : you 
may not enter, for if he wake up and see you, he will be 
angry." So say the guardians at the palace gate. Pass 
them by and enter the temple of that lord who is the ruler 
of the universe that shrine which gives boundless bliss, full 
of love, where the speech of rough doorkeepers is not heard. 

98. Dear friend ! unyielding destiny, like an almighty 
potter, places the mind of man upon the wheel of care like 
a lump of clay and makes him revolve, that wheel which 
is ever moving through all the manifold evils of life, visit- 
ing men as though with the rod of affliction. 

99. There is no difference for me between Siva, the lord 
of the world, the slayer of Janu, and Vishnu, the soul of 
the universe ; therefore I worship the deity who bears the 
moon-crest. 

100. I am satisfied with the divine voice which sheds 
forth words over my mind sweeter than honey, richer 
than butter. Alms content me ; bark clothing satisfies me ; 
I care nothing for wealth gained in a state of slavery to 
objects of sense. 



54 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

101. The ascetic may be clothed in rags; he may beg 
his livelihood ; his bed may be in the grove of a cemetery ; 
he may cease to care for friend or foe ; his habitation may 
be desolate ; but he dwells in peace, rejoicing because the 
intoxication of pride has disappeared. 

1 02. The many pleasures of which this world is made 
up are all transitory ; why then, men ! do you roam 
about ? why take such pains to pursue them ? Free your 
soul from the numberless bonds of desire, and let it enter 
into the abode of peace which is destined for it, if you be- 
lieve my words. 

103. Blessed are those who dwell in the mountain caves 
meditating on the glory of the Supreme. In their laps the 
birds perch fearlessly, and drink the tears of joy flowing 
from their eyes. As for us, our life passes away while we 
enjoy ourselves in the groves or on the river-banks, build- 
ing castles in the air. 

104. Every living thing is subject to death. Youth 
passes into old age ; contentment is destroyed by covetous- 
ness after riches ; peace of mind by the glances of beauti- 
ful women ; the just are slandered by envious men ; forests 
are infested by serpents ; kings are ruined by evil coun- 
sellors. Even the divine virtues themselves are unstable ; 
so everything in the world suffers loss and damage. 

105. The health of men is undermined by sicknesses of 
various kinds : when fortune has departed, then disasters 
come in as if by the open door. Death truly brings all 
things under his sway. Destiny has made nothing abide 
firmly. 

1 06. Men have dwelt in the narrow womb of their 
mother, suffering pain ; youth, with its separations from 
one we love, is full of sorrow ; old age, exposing men to the 
contempt of women, is an evil thing. Alas! when one reckons 
it up, what pleasure is there to be found in the world ? 

107. The life of man endures a hundred years; half is 
spent in night ; of the remainder, half is spent in childhood 
and in old age. Servitude, pain, separation, sickness, fill 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 55 

up that which is left. What pleasure then can there be 
in the life of man, which is as uncertain as the bubbles 
on the stream ? 

1 08. Pure-minded men, possessed of right judgment, 
through their union with the Supreme Spirit perform 
things hard of performance; for they entirely cast off 
worldly ^iches, which are the source of all pleasure. As 
for us, neither what we had formerly nor that which we 
have now is really in our own power. That which we 
have only in wish we cannot abandon. 

109. Old age menaces the body like a tiger; diseases 
carry it off like enemies ; life slips away like water out of 
a broken jar ; and yet man lives an evil life in the world. 
Truly this is marvellous. \ 

no. The Creator makes a jewel of a man, a mine of 
virtues, an ornament to the earth and then in one 
moment destroys him. Alas ! what want of knowledge 
does the Creator display ! 

in. The body is bent with age, the steps fail, the teeth 
are broken, the sight becomes dim, deafness grows on one, 
the mouth dribbles, servants cease to obey one's orders, 
one's wife is not submissive, one's son is even one's 
enemy such are the evils of old age. 

112. For a moment one is a child ; for a moment a 
youth full of love : in one minute wealth is abundant ; in 
the next it has all vanished. A man comes to the end of 
life, and then, with his limbs worn by age and covered 
with wrinkles, as an actor disappears behind the curtain, 
so he enters the abode of death. 

113. Whether a man wear a serpent or a string of pearls, 
whether he be surrounded by powerful enemies or friends, 
whether he be the owner of jewels or possesses merely a 
lump of mud, whether his bed be flowers or a stone, 
whether he be encircled by grass or by a multitude of 
women, it is all the same to him while, dwelling in a 
sacred grove, he invokes Siva. 



56 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 



MISCELLANEOUS SLOKAS. 

1. The whole world is filled with delight to the poor 
man, to the man whose passions are subdued, to the man 
who is calm, and whose mind is ever equal, who is filled 
with contentment. 

2. Final emancipation death is approaching, but yet 
no thought is bestowed upon these things. The various 
states of life have been passed through : calamity happi- 
ness falls dangers these have been endured. What 
more shall we say ? Alas ! what injury have you not 
inflicted on yourself over and over again ! 

3. The belly is a pot difficult to fill : it scorches up 
a man's virtue, even as the moon scorches up the beds 
of lotuses : it is like a thief that steals one's purse : it is 
even as a flashing axe cutting down the tree of virtue. 

4. Let us eat the food we have gained by begging : let 
the sky be our only garment : let the earth be our couch : 
why should we be a slave to harsh masters ? 

5. "0 my friend! rise up, endure the heavy weight 
of poverty : let me, overcome with weariness, enjoy at 
length the rest which thou hast gained in death." Thus 
was the corpse on the way to the burying-ground ad- 
dressed by the man who had lost his wealth. The corpse 
remained in silence, knowing that death is better than 
poverty. 

6. Vide Niti feataka, Miscellaneous, sloka 4. 

7. Vide Niti SataJca, Miscellaneous, sloka 6. 

8. Hara, who rejoices because his beloved spouse is half 
of his own being, shines resplendent in those who are given 
over to passion: the same deity, who has no superiors, 
manifested in his absence of union with his wife, rules in 
those who are freed from passion. He who is filled with 
confusion through the various snake-poisoned arrows of 
love, hard to be endured, cheated by Kama, can neither 
abandon nor enjoy objects of sense. 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 57 

9. At one time women laugh, at another they weep ; so 
they make men trust in them, though they themselves are 
full of falsehood. The understanding man therefore avoids 
women as he would a vessel used in a burying-place. 

10. When we pass our life at Benares, on the banks of 
the divine river, clothed in a single garment, and with our 
hands uplifted to our head, in supplication exclaim, " 
Spouse of Gauri, Tripurahara, Sambhu, Trinayana, be pro- 
pitious to us ! " in the midst of our supplications the days 
pass by as if in a moment. 

11. A firm swelling bosom, twinkling eyes, a small 
mouth, curling hair, slowness of speech, and rounded hips 
are praised in a woman; timidity, too, is always com- 
mended in the heart of a woman one loves, and the cunning 
devices which she practises towards her lover : those fawn- 
eyed damsels who have all these collected faults should 
be dear only to the beasts. 

12. Sometimes there is music and song, sometimes\ 
lamentations ; sometimes we may listen to the conversa- 
tion of the wise, sometimes only the disputes of drunken | "") 
men ; sometimes we may enjoy all pleasures, sometimes 
our bodies may be running over with disease : so the life 

of man is made up partly of ambrosia, partly of poison. 

13. You, as you pay flattery to your rich patrons with 
your voice and limbs disguised, are, as it were, the actors 
in a comedy. What kind of a part will you play in time 

when your hair is grey with age ? 

j, ######## 

1 5. Fortune is fleeting, breath is fleeting, youth is fleeting; 
the only thing immovable in the world is righteousness. 

1 6. May Hara, whose forehead is ornamented by the 
crescent moon like a tongue of flame, who consumed the 
god of love flitting around him like a moth, manifesting 
himself in the height of the state of happiness, who re- 
moves the mighty weight of darkness which overwhelms 
the earth, the torch of light in the innermost mind of the 
ascetic, may he, Hara, be victorious ! 



58 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

17. my mind ! do not in thy solicitude think upon 
the goddess of fortune ; for she is as uncertain as a cour- 
tesan, delighting to sport in the frown or smile of princes. 
Eather clothe thyself with rags, and entering Benares, beg 
from door to door the food which men will place in the 
vessels which you offer. 

1 8. The tortoise, whose back is wearied with the burden 
of the mighty world which he bears, has been indeed born 
to good purpose; the birth of the Pole Star is glorious 
too, for the splendid orb of the universe is fixed upon 
him ; all other beings that have come into being are as 
though dead, for their wings are useless in doing good to 
others ; they are neither above nor below, but are even as 
gnats, buzzing about in the fig-tree of this world. 

19. " My house is magnificent, my sons are respected by 
the good, my wealth is infinite, my wife is beautiful, my 
life is in its prime." Thus speaks the man whose mind is 
obscured through ignorance. The wise man, on the con- 
trary, knowing that everything in the prison-house of this 
world is transitory, casts aside all earthly possessions. 

20. Those who are full of curses may curse; we are 
righteous, and, because we are devoid of evil, we cannot 
pour forth abusive words. That only can be given which 
is in the world ; it would not be possible to give a hare's 
horn to any one. 

21. Vide Niti tiataJca, Miscellaneous, sloka 10. 

22. Subsistence can be easily gained in this world in 
the path of delights. The earth is full of fruit ; elephant 
or deer-skin will provide clothing ; the same consequences 
result from happiness or unhappiness. Who then, casting 
off the three-eyed deity, would reverence one blinded by 
the love of a little money ? 

23. We have slain elephants by the sword, we have 
tortured our enemies, we have playfully sported on the 
couch of our beloved, we have lived within the roaring 
sound of the falls on the Himalayas, but yet we have 
had no pleasure. Like the crows, we have passed our 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 59 

lives in eager desire after morsels of food given to us by 
others. 

24. Where, my mind ! dost thou wander ? Eest for a 
time ! Since that which has been ordained cannot come 
to pass in any other way, think not of the past, care 
nothing for the future ; enjoy only those pleasures which 
come and go without being looked for. 

25. Use thy hand as a drinking vessel; eat in peace the 
food thou hast gained by begging with pure mind ; take 
up thy seat in any place thou canst, looking on the whole 
world but as grass. It is only a few, before they have 
cast off their earthly forms, who have attained to the 
knowledge of the unbroken and exceeding happiness which 
the ascetic feels, a bliss easily gained through the favour 
of Siva. 

26. Bali has not been released by you from Patala : 
you have not brought destruction to death : the dark spot 
has not been cleared from the moon, nor has sickness been 
removed from men. You have not borne up the world 
for a moment, and so relieved the weariness of Sesha. 
my mind ! art thou not ashamed wrongfully to bear the 
honour belonging only to noble heroes. 

27. My mind desires to attain to union with Siva, for 
through union with him all that restlessness arising from 
the discussion as to the meaning of the different Sastras is 
allayed ; the emotions, stirred up by poetry with its various 
sentiments, are made to cease ; the multitude of doubts is 
entirely swept away. 

28. You may take the fruits of the earth at your will ; 
in every wood there is no lack of trees ; in every place 
there is water, sweet and cool, of the sacred streams ; there 
is a soft couch strewn for you, made up of the shoots of 
the delicate creepers. Why then do wretched men suffer 
such miseries, waiting at the doors of the rich ? 

29. You may have enjoyed a meal of good food : what 
then ? or you may have eaten coarse food at the close of 
the day : what then ? Your raiment may be ragged and 



60 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

torn, or ample and magnificent : what then ? You may 
have but one servant, or an endless number : what then ? 
You may have but one elephant, or you may be encircled 
by thousands of horses and elephants : what then ? 

30. I can gain food by begging ; the cow of plenty 
supplies me with milk; my rags keep off the cold; I 
worship Siva unceasingly. What care I for possessions ? 

31. The great ascetics declare that a life passed as a 
mendicant is not miserable ; for the mendicant has no fear 
of loss; he has no envy, pride, or arrogance; he is free 
from the mass of evils which beset mankind ; he gains his 
food day by day without difficulty. The mendicant life 
is a means of purification beloved by the gods ; it lays up 
treasure that will last for ever ; it increases devotion to 
Siva. 

32. The mendicant who has the earth for his couch, the 
sky as his canopy, the moon as his lamp, rejoicing in the 
union which he has attained with peace, fanned by the 
winds of heaven which blow from all quarters, is even as 
a prince, although he has cast off all desire for earthly pos- 
sessions. 

33. Pleasures are as fleeting as the changing ripples 
of the mighty river : life flees away in a moment ; our days 
are few ; the joys of youth pass away ; the love of one's 
friends fails. Let the wise man, therefore, who knows 
that all this world is vain, and whose mind truly perceives 
the evil of worldly attractions, direct his efforts towards 
indifference. 

34. Thou dost not regard the face of the rich; thou 
dost not speak flattering words ; thou dost not listen to the 
utterances of pride ; thou dost not go here and there for the 
hope of profit ; but thou eatest in their season the fresh 
shoots of grass, and sleepest peacefully at the time of 
sleep. Tell me, I pray thee, deer, what penance hast 
thou practised ? 

35. Vide NUi ataka, Miscellaneous, sloka 15. 

36. Vide Mti ataka, gloka 2. 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 61 

37. Vide Niti ataka, Miscellaneous, sloka 16. 

38. Women who are young avoid the man whose head 
is grey with age and the man who is enfeebled by years. 
They flee far from him, avoiding him like the well fre- 
quented by Chandalas, which has a piece of bone hanging 
over it. 

39. How often are thy enterprises destroyed ! how often, 
senseless man ! hast thou not desired, filled as thou art 
with folly, to drink water from the vain mirage of this 
world ! Since thy confidence is not abated, and since 
thy mind, though torn, is not subdued, surely thy heart 
must be made of adamantine rock. 

40. The eyes of a woman will softly enter a man's 
heart and fill it with infatuation, with intoxication, with 
deception, with menaces, with delights. What will not 
the eyes of a woman accomplish ? 

41. The mighty lion, which eats the flesh of boars and 
elephants, enjoys love but once in a year ; the dove, pick- 
ing up only pieces of hard rock, is a lover every day. Tell 
me what is the reason for this ? 

42. A dwelling in a sacred forest, with the deer alone 
as companions ; a life nourished on the fruits of the earth 
on the banks of every stream, the flat rock surface for a 
couch : such is the life of peaceful calm that the ascetic 
lives who desires contact with Hara; his mind is fixed 
upon one object ; the forest or the dwelling are the same 
to him. 

43. The goddess pours forth words of sweet sound, more 
pleasing than honey or butter : at the utterances of her 
ambrosial body we are filled with delight. As long as we 
can gain barley grain by begging, so long we will not 
desire to amass wealth gained in a state of slavery. 



NOTES TO VAIEAGYA S'ATAKA. 

The third collection of S'atakas ascribed to Bhartrihari, called 
the Vairdgya ataka, treats of the renunciation of all worldly 
objects and desires. Fairdgya, meaning absence from pas- 
sion, is an abstract substantive formed from vi-rdga; rdga 
meaning mental feelings or affections, passion in general; 
vi, the particle which, affixed to words, gives them the 
opposite sense which they originally possessed. Vairagya^ 
however, means more than a mere negative state : not only 
must there be absence from passion, freedom from the 
desire for all worldly objects, but there must also be devo- 
tion shown by a solitary and ascetic life, a life of worship 
and penance. 

2. Three classes of men exist : learned men, who are 
envious of the knowledge that others possess ; mighty men, 
who care nothing for learning, through pride in their own 
greatness; and men who are too ignorant to take any in- 
terest in learning. Therefore, between these three, learning 
and science gains no hearing in the world. 

3. Fipdkah punydndm jayanti bhayam me mmrisatah. "The 
consequence (or result) of good deeds produces fear in me 
when I reflect." The performance of good actions will gain 
Svarga; but Svarga, according to the Yedantic system, is 
not the highest state. Moksha, the final release of the soul, 
its exemption from all further separate existence, is the 
great end to be attained and the pleasures of Svarga operate 
as a hindrance, and defer the liberation of the soul. There- 
fore good deeds and the results they produce are to be viewed 
with apprehension. The object of the devotee must be eman- 
cipation from all earthly objects and desires, and absorption 
into the Supreme Being. 

" The saint who has attained to full perfection 
Of contemplation sees the universe 
Existing in himself, and with the eye 
Of knowledge sees the All as the One Soul. 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 63 

When bodily disguises are dissolved, 
The perfect saint becomes completely blended 
With the One Soul, as water blends with water, 
As air unites with air, fire with fire." 

Atma-bodha, Mon. Williams' Trans., quoted in 
"Indian Wisdom" p. 122. 

5. "I have eaten like a crow," &c. Cf. Panchatantra, i. 30. 

Kakopi jivate chiram clia balim chabhurikte. " A crow lives 
long and enjoys food." The force of the phrase is intended 
to convey the idea of living meanly. 

ii. The distinction must be observed between Samsdra 
vichhitti, " the destruction of future births," and Svarga, which 
is the paradise of the enjoyment of objects of sense. 

13. Neither in the pardoning of injuries nor in the abandon- 
ment of home was there any idea of self-abnegation ; the first 
proceeding from want of power to revenge the injuries, the 
second, because the pleasures of home were unattainable. 

We have suffered as much pain in the pursuit of earthly 
things as if we had practised the acts of self-denial inculcated 
by the wise, and the result is that we have gained no fruits 
of righteousness. 

For 3d line cf. Fikramorvasi, Introductory sloka "Antar 
mumukshubhir niyamitapranadibhir mrigyate," " (Siva), who 
is sought inwardly with suspended breath and other penances 
by those who desire liberation (from objects of sense)." Also 
Raghuv., viii. 19 

" Aparah pranidhana yogyaya 
marutah pancha sariragochar&n." 

"The other (subdued) by the exercise of meditation the five 
breaths whose abode were in his own body." 

14, "Objects of desire are ever fresh." Cf. Hor., Car. 
iv. i 

"Intermissa Venus diu 

Rursus bella moves ? Parce, precor, precor, 
Non sum qualis eram bonae 

Sub regno Cinarse." 
Also Car. iv. 10. 
23. This sloka is directed against the pride of petty kings. 



64 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

Their position is contrasted with that of the great heroes 
and sages of fable, who were supposed to have ruled the 
whole world, and with the position of the great sovereigns of 
modern times. 

Chaturdasabhuvandni, the fourteen divisions of the world, is 
explained by the scholiast to mean "the whole earth," a 
figurative way of expressing the greatness of the possessions 
of the sovereigns referred to. 

24. This sloka, and also 27 and 30, may be termed a 
colloquy between a prince and an ascetic, or rather a mono- 
logue in which the ascetic only speaks. The ascetic's chief 
object apparently is to prove that he is on a level with princes, 
if not above them. 

25. Eeferring still to the petty princes (sloka 23), patayah, 
11 owners of land," who feel delight at their possessions, 
though they ought to feel sorrow and humility when they 
compare themselves with the great sovereigns, and perceive 
how small their own dominions are. 

27. Cf. Juv. iii. 41 " Quid Romse faciam? mentiri nescio." 

28. The idea (as explained by Telang) is, that in the first 
instance learning was a means to the destruction of worldly 
troubles, afterwards to the achievement of worldly pleasures, 
but now, receiving no appreciation at all, it is departing from 
the earth. 

29. Why should princes be filled with pride in their attend- 
ants and their possessions, since the only true honour is that 
which S'iva confers upon his followers ] The honour referred 
to in this sloka is said to be reserved for the liberal, the tem- 
perate, those who keep their promises, and those slain in battle. 

39. Kala and Kali are taken by Telang to be the male and 
female personifications of the destructive principle. Kola is a 
name of destiny or fate. It is also taken to mean " time that 
destroys all things." Kali is one of the names given to 
Parvati, as the great destroying goddess. These two personi- 
fied principles are represented as playing with men as though 
they were chessmen. The word sdra or sdra means a piece 
at chess or backgammon. Cf. Hor., Car. iii. 29, 50. Cf. also 
Plautus, Captiv., Prologue, 22 "Nimirum Di nos quasi pilas 
homines habent." 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 65 

40. Dwelling beside the divine river, i.e., the Ganges, is 
equivalent to abandoning the world. 

45. Bdga-grdha-vtint, "Love takes the place of crocodiles." 
Benfey in Lex. (sub Grdhavant) translates " Containing love in- 
stead of sharks." The first half of the word relates to men's 
desires, the second to the river to which they are compared. A 
man is drowned by the passions which meet him in the river 
of desire, as a swimmer across the Ganges would be eaten by 
the crocodiles. 

46. Aldna, " The post to which an elephant is tied." Of. 
Mrich., act i. 39 

" Alane grihyate hasti vaji valgasu grihyate 
hridaye grihyate naii, yadidam nasti gamyatam." 

"An elephant is held by a post, a horse is restrained by 
bridles, a woman by her heart. If these are not secured 
depart." 

47. The idea to be gained from this stanza is, that the 
suppliant of the rich thinks the days too long because he 
has to suffer the trouble of unsuccessful entreaties ; the per- 
son engaged in worldly objects thinks the time too short 
to accomplish his numerous ends. On the other hand, 
the philosopher laughs at both sets of persons for their delu- 
sions. 

53. Turaga-chala-cliittdh. Chala-chitta means fickle, incon- 
stant. Turaga means simply the swift goer \ hence a horse ; 
also the mind, from its swiftness of thought (Of. Fair. $., si. 
77). Turaga-chala-chitta might mean, therefore, simply "fickle 
in mind." Telang remarks on the words as expressing an 
"unusual simile," suggesting that the mind is compared to 
a horse for swiftness. Probably a play on the words is 
meant. 

55. The status of the man who thus obtains his livelihood 
by begging is laid down in Manu, vi. 87, where he is placed 
as occupying the third order in the Brahman caste. The 
Yana-prastha (the title by which he is designated) is the last 
stage but one in the Brahman's life. He is directed, among 
other duties (Manu, ii. 187), on the morning and evening of 
each day to go round the villages in his neighbourhood, and 

E 



66 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

to beg food for himself and his spiritual teacher. The " door- 
posts blackened by the smoke of the offerings " is referred to, 
Raghuv., i. 53 

" Abhyutthit&gnipisunaih atithinasramonmukhan 
punanam pavanoddhatairdhumairahutigandhibhih. " 

" (The hermitage) purifying the guests whose faces were 
turned towards the hermitage, through the smoke of the obla- 
tions, which was scented, borne upon the wind, showing where 
the fires were rising." 

63. This sloka is identical with Niti tfatalca, sloka 26. 

65. This sloka is literally, " You (are) we, we (are) you, thus 
was the mind of us two : how has it become now that you as 
you, we (are) we ? " 

66. Cf. Plato defiep.j'Book i. cap. 3 Il&g, 'ifa, w 2o</>oxX/s, 

rd(f)oodiffiat, j sri oJoc r sj yvvoux.} ffwyy/ysffdai xal 0, 
?j, aff.agva/rara [AWTOI avrb aKe^wyov, UGKID l.vrruvra. nva, 
xat ayyov dsffKorqv anoffrwyuiv. 

69. "Supercilious contempt," " Vasa-pavana-anartita-bhru- 
latani," lit. " Creeper-like eyebrows gently moved up and down 
with the wind of (their own) p^ower (or conceit)." 

73. "Thy foot may have been placed on the neck of thy 
enemies," "Nyastam padam sirasi vidvishatam tatah kim." 
For a parallel idea among other passages, cf. Ps. viii. 8 (Vulg.), 
" Omnia subjecisti sub pedibus ejus ; " also Ps. xlvi. 4. For 
a collateral notion, cf. Ps. cix. i, "Donee ponam inimicos 
tuos, scabellum pedum tuorum." This and the following 
sloka teaches that man may have gained everything to 
be desired, but yet not have attained to emancipation from 
worldly things and union with the Supreme Being. This is 
only to be gained by the methods inculcated in the following 
stanza. 

74. Cf. Miscellaneous Satakas, Vairagya ataJca, sloka 29. 

75. Vairdgya (the subject of this S'ataka) is the sole means 
of gaining union with the Supreme Soul ; and what Vairdgya, 
IS this sloka explains. 

Contrast with this sloka, Bhagavad., vi. i " He who pays 
no heed to the fruit of his acts, and who performs his duty, 
he is both the devotee and the ascetic." 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 67 

77. Cf. "... nee quicquam tibi prodest 

Aerias tentasse domos, animoque rotundum 
Percurrisse polum morituro." 

HOT. Car. i. 25, 4. 

81. Cf. Bhagavad., ii. 46 "Not disposed to meditation and 
perseverance is the intention of those who are devoted to 
enjoyments and dominion, and whose minds are seduced from 
the right path by that flowery sentence which is proclaimed 
by the universe, who delight in texts from the Vedas, and 
say, * There is nothing else than that/ being covetous-minded 
and considering heaven as the chief goal, and which offers 
regeneration as the reward of actions, and enjoins many 
different ceremonies for the sake of obtaining pleasures and 
dominion. . . . Let the motive for action be in the action 
itself, never in its reward ; . . . perform thy actions, being the 
same in success or failure. The performance of works is far 
inferior to mental devotion." Everything but the performance 
of actions without regard to future results, all virtuous acts, 
except those performed solely for the sake of virtue, are, as it 
were, the mere haggling of merchants, with the intention of 
making the highest profit." 

Cf. also Bhagavad., xviii. 66 

" Sarvadharman parityajya man ekam saranam vraja 
aham tvam sarvapapebhyo mochayishyami." 

" Abandon all religious duties, come to me as the only refuge, 
so will I deliver thee from all sin." 

83. 6aphartj a little fish, supposed to be a carp. 

84. " Women seemed the only objects," &c. The text lite- 
rally translated is " Drishtam narimayam idam asesham jaga- 
dapi," " This world seemed altogether made up of women." 

86. Cf. Bhagavad., ii. 15 

" Yamhi na vyathayanty ete purusham purusharshabha 
samaduhkasukham dhiram so mritatvaya kalpate." 

"The man whom these outward things do not affect, and 
who is the same both in pain and pleasure, that man is fitted 
for immortality." 



68 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

92. The removal of hunger and thirst are not really plea- 
sure, only a temporary removal of a pain. Cf. Plato, Rep., 
584 H5>$ ouv og6Z>$ \<sri rb ftr) d\yeTv qdu qysTff&at, v\ TO /ATI 
X<ic/ff/v dvicceov ; ovda/Atog. oux sffriv ago, ro\jro, dXXcb 
6' syu vagd rb dXytivbv ^5i), xa/ Dragee rb qdb dXytivbv TOTS Y\ 
xa/ Qufisv vyitc, rovruv ruv <j)Kvra,Gfj,a,ruv VPOS yjdovr^ dXqdciav 
yo?jr/a rig. *n$ yoDi/ 6 Xoyoj g^j, ff^/j,a.ivsi. 'Ids ro/vuv, 971^ 
rfiwac, di oux sx XWTTUV g/Viv, 7ca /a^ 5roXXax/g oiqfys sv rw 

rovru Kstfruxsvai vjftowjv fj,ev craDXav X6c7?jj s/i/a/, XLITTTJI/ 



96. Benares is chosen as a city of special holiness and the 
resort of mendicants. There are seven cities of so great sanctity 
in the popular belief, that to die in them leads to final union 
with the Supreme Being. The following verse gives them 

" Ayodhya Mathura Maya Kast K4nchi Avantika 
pura Dvaravati chaiva saptaita mokshadayikah." 

"Meghaddfa" Wilson, p. 31, note. 

97. Cf. Juvenal, x. 160 

"... In exsilium prseceps fugit, atque ibi magnus 
Mirandus que cliens sedet ad prsetoria regis." 

Expressed by Dryden as follows : 

" Eepulsed by surly grooms, who wait before 
The sleeping tyrant's interdicted door." 

1 01. This sloka gives the rule by which an ascetic should 
live. Avadhtita-charya means wandering about as a mendi- 
cant, separated from worldly feelings and obligations. This 
is the life of one who has attained to the fourth order in the 
Brahman caste, and is called a Sannydsin, or a Tail. "Let 
him remain without fire, without habitation let him resort 
once a day to the town for food, regardless of hardships, 
resolute, keeping a vow of silence, fixing his mind on medi- 
tation." Manu, vi. 43. 

" With hair, nails, and beard well clipped, carrying a bowl, 
a staff, and a pitcher, let him wander about continually, intent 
on meditation, and avoiding injury to any being." Manu, 
vi. 52. 

" In this manner, having little by little abandoned all worldly 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 



69 



attachments, and freed himself from all concern about pairs of 
opposites, he obtains absorption into the universal spirit. "- 
Manu, vi. 81. 

With the life of the Hindu ascetic we may compare the 
instances given of Elijah in the Old Testament, and of St. 
John the Baptist in St. Mark i. 6. 

103. Cf. &ik., 175 "Amsavyapi sakuntanida nichitam 
bibhrajjatamandalam," " Wearing a circular mass of matted 
hair enveloping his shoulders, filled with birds' nests." This 
is a portion of the description of the sage Kasyapa. 

1 08. Telang explains brahmajndnavivekinah by "those who 
possess the discrimination (i.e., between things real and unreal) 
resulting from knowledge of the Brahma." This stanza says 
that it is more difficult to abandon the riches which we 
actually possess than to get rid of the desire for earthly 
possessions ; but what we actually have is so uncertain, and 
of such doubtful duration, that it can hardly be said to be 
ours to give up ; how much less those things which we only 
desire and wish for. The writer attempts to prove that the 
giving up of actual riches in possession may be a difficult 
matter, but the giving' up of the desire for riches is, or 
ought not to be at all difficult. 

112. Cf. Shakespeare, "As You Like It," act ii. sc. 7. 



MISCELLANEOUS S'LOKAS. 
5. Cf. Chaucer, "Man of Lawes Tale," 15 

" Herkneth what is the sentens of the wyse, 
Bet is to dye than haven indigence." 

8. Telang in his notes to the Vairdgya jjata&a explains this 
stanza as alluding to the idea that S'iva and Parvati form a 
single body, half of which is male, half female. S'iva, though 
he is so far under the dominion of love as to have his wife half 
of himself, is also the first as to withstanding love. 

9. This sloka, slightly altered, occurs, Mrich., act iv. 124, in 



70 VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 

S'arvilaka's speech, which is entirely made up of aspersions on 
the character of women generally. Of. Euripides 

A5jXov wg yuvq xaxov {Aiya,. Hippol. 627. j 

Also . . . %$v yao aX\o6sv vodev 

xvovcQcti) dqXv 5'oux e/va/ 
ac oux %v ov&v oudowiroiz xaxo'v. Med. 573- 

Tevog yao ovre CTOITOJ ovre yij rgefai 
Tofovds. Hec. 1181. 

ii. This stanza is one containing a play upon words through- 
out. The epithets which are used in a complimentary sense 
referring to a woman's external form may also, together with 
the substantives which they qualify, be used in a bad sense 
as applied to mental characteristics. From this point of view 
the stanza might mean " Hardness of heart, eyes not looking 
straightforward, a deceitful face, a stupid look, sluggishness, 
cowardice, crafty behaviour; such qualities may be subjects of 
boasting, but are really evil, and wise men avoid women of this 
kind." The wise man does not judge women merely by their 
external appearance ; such want of discrimination is only worthy 
of the beasts ; he looks within. 

Cf. Fairdgya SataJca, sloka 62. 

13. Prahasana, translated "comedy," is one of the ten 
Rdpakas or forms of dramatic representation. 

" Hair grey with age." Palita-kamaka-bhajam, lit. " having 
grey ears," i.e., grey hairs round your ears. 

Of. fiaghuv., xii. 2 

" Tarn karnamulamagatya 

. '. . . . . palitachchhadinana jara." 

" Old age under the guise of grey hairs 
Creeping to the bottom of his ear." 

18. Jdtah, "born indeed" i.e., born to some good purpose. 
Cf. Vairdgya SataJca, sloka 29. Dhruva, " the pole-star," that 
which is fixed or permanent. The tortoise below the earth and 
the pole-star above it are probably chosen as examples of two 
things at the extreme limits of the universe. " Neither above 
nor below " may be explained as referring to men who are no 



VAIRAGYA SATAKA. 71 

profit to others, either from a high position, as the pole-star, 
or from a low one, as the tortoise : they have no share in any 
useful work. They are like gnats, aimlessly buzzing about. 
For the fig-tree as symbolising the world of sense and passion, 
cf. Bhagavad., xv. 

23. Men find no pleasure in hunting, in war, or in love, 
because their minds are always set on some extraneous 
object. Cf. Pairdgya Sataka, slokas 5 and 48. 

26. Bali was a virtuous Daitya king, who by means of devo- 
tion and penance gained the mastery over the three worlds. 
Vishnu, on being appealed to by the deities, became manifest 
in his Avatara of the Dwarf for the purpose of overthrowing 
Bali's power. In this form he begged from Bali as much 
ground as he could cover in three steps, and his boon being 
granted, stepped over heaven and earth in two strides. Out 
of respect, however, for Bali's virtues, he left him the lower 
region or Patala. 

29. Cf. Vairdgya, ataJca, sloka 74, and also Bhaghavad., 
vi. 8 

" Jnana vijnana triptatma kutastho vijitendriyah. 
yukta ity uchyate yogi samaloshtasmakanchanah." 

"The man whose soul is satiated with spiritual knowledge 
and discernment, who is unchangeable, who looks upon a 
stone, a clod of earth, or gold as having exactly the same 
value he indeed is called a devotee. " 

34. What penance, it is asked, has the deer practised that 
he is able to pass his life in peace and contentment. 

38. The well used by Chandalas, a tribe of outcasts, is dis- 
tinguished by a piece of bone suspended over it. 



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CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 

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A TALMUDIC MISCELLANY; 
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THE RELIGIONS OF INDIA. 

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HINDU PHILOSOPHY. 
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A MANUAL OF HINDU PANTHEISM. VEDANTASARA. 

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TSUNI I I GO AM : 

THE SUPREME BEING OF THE KHOI-KHOI. 

BY THEOPHILUS HAHN, Ph.D., 

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of the Geegr. Society, Dresden ; Corresponding Member of the 

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THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. 

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THE QUATRAINS OF OMAR KHAYYAM. 

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THE QUATRAINS OF OMAR KHAYYAM. 

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THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS AND 
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A COMPARATIVE HISTORY OF THE EGYPTIAN AND 
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Vol. I. HlSTOKY OF THE EGYPTIAN RELIGION. 

Translated from the Dutch with the Assistance of the Author. 
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YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA. 
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LINGUISTIC ESSAYS. 
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THE SARV A - DARSAN A - SAMGRAHA ; 

OR, REVIEW OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF HINDU 

PHILOSOPHY. 
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Translated by E. B. COWELL, M. A., Professor of Sanskrit in the University 
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in the Presidency College, Calcutta. 

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TIBETAN TALES DERIVED FROM INDIAN SOURCES. 

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BY W. R. S. RALSTON, M.A. 

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UDANAVARGA. 

A COLLECTION OF VERSES FROM THE BUDDHIST CANON. 

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BEING THE NORTHERN BUDDHIST VERSION OF DHAMMAPADA. 

Translated from the Tibetan of Bkah-hgyur, with Notes, and 
Extracts from the Commentary of Pradjnavarman, 

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A SKETCH OF THE MODERN LANGUAGES OF AFRICA. 

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A HISTORY OF BURMA. 

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de France. 

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RELIGION IN CHINA. 

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Containing a Brief Account of the Three Religions of the Chinese, with 
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People. 

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OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF RELIGION TO THE 
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BY C. P. TIELE, 
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University of Leyden. 
Translated from the Dutch by J. ESTLIN CARPENTER, M.A. 

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THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA AND THE EARLY 
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THE SANKHYA APHORISMS OF KAPILA, 

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College. 
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BUDDHIST RECORDS OF THE WESTERN WORLD, 

Translated from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang (A.D. 629). 

BY SAMUEL BEAL, B.A., 
(Trin, Coll., Camb.) ; R.N. (Retired Chaplain and N.I.) ; Professor of Chinese, 

University College, London ; Rector of Wark, Northumberland, &c. 
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THE ORDINANCES OF MANU. 

Translated from the Sanskrit, with an Introduction. 
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Completed and Edited by E. W. HOPKINS, Ph.D., 
of Columbia College, N.Y. 

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THE LIFE AND WORKS OF ALEXANDER 
CSOMA DE KOROS, 

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MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS 

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MALAY PENINSULA AND THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 

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THE SATAKAS OF BHARTRIHARI. 

Translated from the Sanskrit 
By the REV. B. HALE WORTHAM, M.R.A.S., 

Rector of Eggesford, North Devon. 

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He was a celebrated poet and grammarian, and is best known by his three 
"Satakas, or Centuries of Verses:" i. "The Sringara Sataka." 2. "The 
NitiSataka." 3. " Vairagy a Sataka." 



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ALLAN-FRASER. CHRISTIANITY AND CHURCHISM. By Patrick Allan-Fraser. 
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APPLETON (Dr.) LIFE AND LITERARY RELICS. See English and Foreign Philoso- 
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BELLOWS. Tous LES VERBES. Conjugations of all the Verbs in the French and 
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460, cloth. 1876. 21s. 
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BLACK. YOUNG JAPAN, YOKOHAMA AND YEDO. A Narrative of the Settlement 
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BLACKET. RESEAECHES INTO THE LOST HISTORIES OF AMERICA; or, The Zodiac 
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BLADES. SHAKSPERE AND TYPOGRAPHY. Being an Attempt to show Shakspere's 
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BLEEK. REYNARD THE Fox IN SOUTH AFRICA; or, Hottentot Fables and Tales, 
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BOTTRELL. STORIES AND FOLK-LORE OF WEST CORNWALL. By "William Bottrell. 
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BOY ENGINEERS. See under LUKIN. 

BOYD. NlGlNANDA ; or, the Joy of the Snake World. A Buddhist Drama in Five 
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of Sa-Harsha-Deva. By Palmer Boyd, B.A., Cambridge. With an Introduction 
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BRADSHAW. DICTIONARY OF BATHING PLACES AND CLIMATIC HEALTH RESORTS. 
Much Revised and Considerably Enlarged. With a Map in Eleven Colours. 
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BRENTANO. ON THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF GILDS, AND THE ORIGIN OF 

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8vo, pp. xvi. and 136, cloth. 1870. 3s. 6d. 
BRETSCHNEIDER. EARLY EUROPEAN RESEARCHES INTO THE FLORA OF CHINA. 

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BRETSCHNEIDER. BOTANICON SINICUM. Notes on Chinese Botany, from Native 

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1882. 10s. 6d. 
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BRUNNOW. -See SCHEFFEL. 

BRUNTON. MAP OF JAPAN. See under JAPAN. 

BUDGE. ARCHAIC CLASSICS. Assyrian Texts ; being Extracts from the Annals of 
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COUSIN. ELEMENTS OF PSYCHOLOGY : included in a Critical Examination of Locke's 
Essay on the Human Understanding, and in additional pieces. Translated from 
the French of Victor Cousin, with an Introduction and Notes. By Caleb S. 
Henry, D.D. Fourth improved Edition, revised according to the Author's last 
corrections. Crown 8vo, pp. 568, cloth. 1871. 8s. 

CO WELL. A SHORT INTRODUCTION TO THE ORDINARY PRAKRIT OP THE SANSKRIT 
DRAMAS. With a List of Common Irregular Prakrit Words. By E. B. Cowell, 
Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Cambridge, and Hon. LL.D. of the 
University of Edinburgh. Crown 8vo, pp. 40, limp cloth. 1875. 3s. 6d. 



16 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

COWELL. PRAKRITA-PRAKASA; or, The Prakrit Grammar of Yararuchi, with the 
Commentary (Manorama) of Bhamaha ; the first complete Edition of the Original 
Text, with various Readings from a collection of Six MSS. in the Bodleian Library 
at Oxford, and the Libraries of the Royal Asiatic Society and the East India 
House ; with Copious Notes, an English Translation, and Index of Prakrit Words, 
to which is prefixed an Easy Introduction to Prakrit Grammar. By Edward 
Byles Cowell, of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, Professor of Sanskrit at Cambridge. 
New Edition, with New Preface, Additions, and Corrections. Second Issue. 
8vo, pp. xxxi. and 204, cloth. 1868. 14s. 

COWELL. THE SARVADARSANA SAMGRAHA. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

CO WLEY. POEMS. By Percy Tunnicliff Cowley. Demy 8vo, pp. 104, cloth. 
1881. 5s. 

CRAIG. THE IRISH LAND LABOUR QUESTION, Illustrated in the History of Rala- 
hine and Co-operative Farming. By E. T. Craig. Crown 8vo, pp. xii. and 202, 
cloth. 1882. 2s. 6d. Wrappers, 2s. 

CRANBROOK CREDIBILIA ; or, Discourses on Questions of Christian Faith. By 
the Rev. James Cranbrook, Edinburgh. Reissue. Post 8vo, pp. iv. and 190, 
cloth. 1868. 3s. 6d. 

CRANBROOK. THE FOUNDERS OF CHRISTIANITY; or, Discourses upon the Origin 
of the Christian Religion. By the Rev. James Cranbrook, Edinburgh. Post 8vo, 
pp. xii. and 324. 1868. 6s. 

CRAVEN. THE POPULAR DICTIONARY IN ENGLISH AND HINDUSTANI, AND HINDU- 
STANI AND ENGLISH. With a Number of Useful Tables. Compiled by the 
Rev. T. Craven, M.A. 18mo, pp. 430, cloth. 1881. 3s. 6d. 

CRAWFORD. RECOLLECTIONS OF TRAVEL IN NEW ZEALAND AND AUSTRALIA. By 
James Coutts Crawford, F.G.S., Resident Magistrate, Wellington, &c., &c. With 
Maps and Illustrations. 8vo, pp. xvi. and 468, cloth. 1880. 18s. 

CROSLAND. APPARITIONS ; An Essay explanatory of Old Facts and a New Theory. 
To which are added Sketches and Adventures. By Newton Crosland. Crown 8vo, 
pp. viii. and 166, cloth. 1873. 2s. 6d. 

CROSLAND. PITH : ESSAYS AND SKETCHES GRAVE AND GAY, with some Verses 
and Illustrations. By Newton Crosland. Crown 8vo, pp. 310, cloth. 1881. 5s. 

CROSLAND. THE NEW PRINCIPLE; or, The Astronomy of the Future. An Essay 
Explanatory of a Rational System of the Universe. By N. Crosland, Author of 
" Pith," &c. Foolscap 8vo, pp. 88, cloth limp elegant, gilt edges. 1884. 2s. 6d. 

CROSS. HESPERIDES. The Occupations, Relaxations, and Aspirations of a Life. 
By Launcelot Cross, Author of " Characteristics of Leigh Hunt," " Brandon 
Tower," " Business," &c. Demy 8vo, pp. iv.-486, cloth. 1883. 10s. 6d. 

CSOMA DE SOROS. LIFE OF. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

CUMMINS. A GRAMMAR OF THE OLD FRIESIC LANGUAGE. By A. H. Cummins, 
A.M. Crown 8vo, pp. x. and 76, cloth. 1881. 3s. 6d. 

CUNNINGHAM. THE ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA. I. The Buddhist Period, 
including the Campaigns of Alexander and the Travels of Hwen-Thsang. By 
Alexander Cunningham, Major- General, Royal Engineers (Bengal Retired). With 
13 Maps. 8vo, pp. xx. and 590, cloth. 1870. 1, 8s. 

CUNNINGHAM. THE STUPA OF BHARHUT : A Buddhist Monument ornamented with 
numerous Sculptures illustrative of Buddhist Legend and History in the Third 
Century B.C. By Alexander Cunningham, C.S.I., C.I.E., Maj.-Gen., R.E. (B.R.), 
Dir.-Gen. Archaaol. Survey of India. Royal 8vo, pp. viii. and 144, with 57 Plates, 
cloth. 1879. 3, 3s. 

CUNNINGHAM. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA, Reports from 1862-80. By 
A. Cunningham, C.S.I., C.I.E., Major-General, R.E. (Bengal Retired), Director- 
General, Archaeological Survey of India. With numerous Plates, cloth, Vols. I.- 
XI. 10s. each. (Except Vols. VII., VIII., and IX., and also Vols. XII. to 
XVIII., which are 12s. each.) , 



Published by Trubner & Co. 17 

CUSHMAN. CHABLOTTE CUSHMAN: Her Letters' and Memories of her Life. 
Edited by her friend, Emma Stebbins. Square 8vo, pp. viii. and 308, cloth. 
With Portrait and Illustrations. 1879. 12s. 6d. 

OUST. LANGUAGES or THE EAST INDIES. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

CUST. LINGUISTIC AND ORIENTAL ESSAYS. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

GUST. LANGUAGES OF AFRICA. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

GUST. PICTURES OF INDIAN LIFE, Sketched with the Pen from 1852 to 1881. By 
K. N. Gust, late I.C.S., Hon. Sec. Royal Asiatic Society. Crown 8vo, pp. x. and 
346, cloth. With Maps. 1881. 7s. 6d. 

GUST. THE SHRINES OF LOURDES, ZARAGOSSA, THE HOLY STAIRS AT EOME, 
THE HOLY HOUSE OF LORETTO AND NAZARETH, AND ST. ANN AT JERUSALEM. By 
R. N. Gust, Member of Committees of the Church Missionary Society, and British 
and Foreign Bible Society. With Four Autotypes from Photographs obtained on 
the spot. Fcap. 8vo, pp. iv. and 63, stiff wrappers. 1885. 2s. 

DANA. A TEXT-BOOK OF GEOLOGY, designed for Schools and Academies. By James 
D, Dana, LL.D., Professor of Geology, &c., at Yale College. Illustrated. Crown 
8vo, pp. vi. and 354, cloth. 1876. 10s. 

DANA. MANUAL OF GEOLOGY, treating of the Principles of the Science, with special 
Reference to American Geological History ; for the use of Colleges, Academies, 
and Schools of Science. By James D. Dana, LL.D. Illustrated by a Chart of the 
World, and over One Thousand Figures. 8vo, pp. xvi. and 800, and Chart, cl. 21s. 

DANA. THE GEOLOGICAL STORY BRIEFLY TOLD. An Introduction to Geology for 
the General Reader and for Beginners in the Science. By J. D. Dana, LL.D. 
Illustrated. 12mo, pp. xii. and 264, cloth. 7s. 6d. 

DANA. A SYSTEM OF MINERALOGY. Descriptive Mineralogy, comprising the most 
Recent Discoveries. By J. D. Dana, aided by G. J. Brush. Fifth Edition, re- 
written and enlarged, and illustrated with upwards of 600 Woodcuts, with three 
Appendixes and Corrections. Royal 8vo, pp. xlviii. and 892, cloth. 2, 2s. 

DANA. A TEXT BOOK OF MINERALOGY. With an Extended Treatise on Crystallo- 
graphy and Physical Mineralogy. By E. S. Dana, on the Plan and with the 
Co-operation of Professor J. D. Dana. Third Edition, revised. Over 800 Wood- 
cuts and 1 Coloured Plate. 8vo, pp. viii. and 486, cloth. 1879. 18s. 

DANA. MANUAL OF MINERALOGY AND LITHOLOGY ; Containing the Elements of 
the Science of Minerals and Rocks, for the Use of the Practical Mineralogist and 
Geologist, and for Instruction in Schools and Colleges. By J. D. Dana. Fourth 
Edition, rearranged and rewritten. Illustrated by numerous Woodcuts. Crown 
8vo, pp. viii. and 474, cloth. 1882. 7s. 6d. 

DARWIN. CHARLES DARWIN: A Paper contributed to the Transactions of the 
Shropshire Archaeological Society. By Edward Woodall. With Portrait and 
Illustrations. Post 8vo, pp. iv.-64, cloth. 1884. 3s. 6d. 

DATES AND DATA RELATING TO RELIGIOUS ANTHROPOLOGY AND BIBLICAI ARCHAE- 
OLOGY. (Primaeval Period.) 8vo, pp. viii. and 106, cloth. 1876. 5s. 

DAVIDS. BUDDHIST BIRTH STORIES. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

DA VIES. HINDU PHILOSOPHY. 2 vols. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

DAVIS. NARRATIVE OF THE NORTH POLAR EXPEDITION, U.S. SHIP Polaris, Cap- 
tain Charles Francis Hall Commanding. Edited under the direction of the Hon. 
G. M. Robeson, Secretary of the Navy, by Rear- Admiral C. H. Davis, U.S.N. 
Third Edition. With numerous Steel and Wood Engravings, Photolithographs, 
and Maps. 4to, pp. 696, cloth. 1881. 1, 8s. 

DAY. THE PREHISTORIC USE OF IRON AND STEEL; with Observations on certain 
matter ancillary thereto. By St. John V. Day, C.E., F.R.S.E., &c. 8vo, pp. 
xxiv. and 278, cloth. 1877. 12s. 

DE FLANDRE. MONOGRAMS OF THREE OR MORE LETTERS, DESIGNED AND DRAWN 
ON STONE. By C. De Flandre, F.S.A. Scot., Edinburgh. With Indices, showing 
the place and style or period of every Monogram, and of each individual Letter. 
4to, 42 Plates, cloth. 1880. Large paper, 7, 7s. ; small paper, 3, 3s. 

B 



18 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

DELBRUCK. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OP LANGUAGE : A Critical Survey of the 
History and Methods of Comparative Philology of the Indo-European Languages. 
By B. Delbruck. Authorised Translation, with a Preface by the Author. 8vo, 
pp. 156, cloth. 1882. 5s. Sewed, 4s. 

DELEPIERRE. HisioiEE LiTTERAiRE DBS Fous. Par Octave Delepierre. Crown 
8vo, pp. 184, cloth. 1860. 5s. 

DELEPIERRE. MAC ARONE AN A ANDRA ; overum Nouveaux Melanges de Litterature 
Macaronique. Par Octave Delepierre. Small 4to, pp. 180, printed by Whitting- 
ham, and handsomely bound in the Roxburghe style. 1862. 10s. 6d. 

DELEPIERRE. ANALYSE DES TRAVAUX DE LA SOCIETE DES PHILOBIBLON DE LON- 
DRES. Par Octave Delepierre. Small 4to, pp. viii. and 134, bound in the Rox- 
burghe style. 1862. 10s. 6d. 

DELEPIERRE. REVUE ANALYTIQUE DES OUVRAGES ECRITS EN CENTONS, depuis les 
Temps Anciens, jusqu'au xix idme Siecle. Par un Bibliophile Beige. Small 4to, 
pp. 508, stiff covers. 1868. 1, 10s. 

DELEPIERRE. TABLEAU DE LA LITTERATURE DU CENTON, CHEZ LES ANCIENS ET CHEZ 
LES MODERNES. Par Octave Delepierre. 2 vols, small 4to, pp. '324 and 318. 
Paper cover. 1875. 1, Is. 

DELEPIERRE. L'ENFER : Essai Philosophique et Historique sur les Legendes de 
la Yie Future. Par Octave Delepierre. Crown 8vo, pp. 160, paper wrapper. 
1876. 6s. Only 250 copies printed. 

DENNYS. A HANDBOOK OF THE CANTON VERNACULAR OF THE CHINESE LANGUAGE. 
Being a Series of Introductory Lessons for Domestic and Business Purposes. By 
N. B. Dennys, M.R.A.S., &c. Royal 8vo, pp. iv. and 228, cloth. 1874. 30s. 

DENNYS. A HANDBOOK OF MALAY COLLOQUIAL, as spoken in Singapore, being a 
Series of Introductory Lessons for Domestic and Business Purposes. By N. B. 
Dennys, Ph. D. , F. R. G. S. , M. R. A. S. Impl. 8vo, pp. vi. and 204, cloth. 1878. 21s. 

DENNYS. THE FOLK-LORE OF CHINA, AND ITS AFFINITIES WITH THAT OF THE 
ARYAN AND SEMITIC RACES. By N. B. Dennys, Ph.D., F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S. 
8vo, pp. 166, cloth. 1876. 10s. 6d. 

DE VALDES.-See VALDES. 

DE VINNE. THE INVENTION OF PRINTING: A Collection of Texts and Opinions. 
Description of Early Prints and Playing Cards, the Block-Books of the Fifteenth 
Century, the Legend of Lourens Janszoon Coster of Haarlem, and the "Works of 
John Gutenberg and his Associates. Illustrated with Fac-similes of Early Types 
and Woodcuts. By Theo. L. De Vinne. Second Edition. In royal 8vo, elegantly 
printed, and bound in cloth, with embossed portraits, and a multitude of Fac- 
similes and Illustrations. 1877. 1 Is. 

DICKSON. WHO WAS SCOTLAND'S FIRST PRINTER? Ane Compendious and breue 
Tractate, in Commendation of Andrew Myllar. Compylit be Robert Dickson, 
F.S.A. Scot. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 24, parchment wrapper. 1881. Is. 

DOBSON. MONOGRAPH OF THE ASIATIC CHIROPTERA, and Catalogue of the Species 
of Bats in the Collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. By G. E. Dobson, 
M.A., M.B., F.L.S., &c. 8vo, pp. viii. and 228, cloth. 1876. 12s. 

D'ORSEY. A PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF PORTUGUESE AND ENGLISH, exhibiting in a 
Series of Exercises, in Double Translation, the Idiomatic Structure of both Lan- 
guages, as now written and spoken. Adapted to Ollendorff's System by the Rev. 
Alexander J. D. D'Orsey, of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and Lecturer on 
Public Reading and Speaking at King's College, London. Third Edition. 12mo, 
pp. viii. and 298, cloth. 1868. 7s. 

DOUGLAS. CHINESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF THE VERNACULAR OR SPOKEN LAN- 
GUAGE OF AMOY, with the principal variations of the Chang-Chew and Chin- 
Chew Dialects. By the Rev. Carstairs Douglas, M.A., LL.D., Glasg., Missionary 
of the Presbyterian Church in England. High quarto, double columns, pp. 632, 
cloth. 1873. 3, 3s. 

DOUGLAS. CHINESE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. Two Lectures delivered at the 
Royal Institution, by R. K. Douglas, of the British Museum, and Professor of 
Chinese at King's College. Crown 8vo, pp. 118, cloth. 1875. 5s. 



Published by Triibner & Co. 19 

DOUGLAS. THE LIFE OP JENGHIZ KHAN. Translated from the Chinese. With an 
Introduction. By Robert K. Douglas, of the British Museum, and Professor of 
Chinese at King's College. Crown 8vo, pp. xxxvi. and 106, cloth. 1877. 5s. 

DOUGLAS. POEMS: Lyrical and Dramatic. By Evelyn Douglas. Foolscap 8 vo, 
pp. 256, cloth. 1885. 5s. 

DOUGLAS. THE QUEEN OF THE HID ISLE: An Allegory of Life and Art. And 
LOVE'S PERVERSITY ; or, Eros and Anteros. A Drama. By Evelyn Douglas. 
Fcap. 8vo, pp. viiL-258, cloth. 1885. 5s. 

DOWSON. DICTIONARY OF HINDU MYTHOLOGY, &c. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

DOWSON. A GRAMMAR OF THE URDU OR HINDUSTANI LANGUAGE. By John Dow- 
son, M.K.A.S., Professor of Hindustani, Staff College, Sandhurst. Crown 8vo, 
pp. xvi. and 264, with 8 Plates, cloth. 1872. 10s. 6d. 

DOWSON. A HINDUSTANI EXERCISE BOOK ; containing a Series of Passages and 
Extracts adapted for Translation into Hindustani. By John Dowson, M.R.A.S., 
Professor of Hindustani, Staff College, Sandhurst. Crown 8vo, pp. 100, limp 
cloth. 1872. 2s. 6d. 

DUKA. THE LIFE AND TRAVELS OF ALEXANDER CSOMA DE KO"RO~S: A Biography, 
compiled chiefly from hitherto Unpublished Data ; With a Brief Notice of each 
of his Published Works and Essays, as well as of his still Extant Manuscripts. By 
Theodore Duka, Doctor of Medicine ; Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of 
England ; Surgeon-Major, Her Majesty's Bengal Medical Service, Retired ; Knight 
of the Order of the Iron Crown; Corresponding Member of the Academy of 
Sciences of Hungary. Post 8vo, with Portrait, pp. xii.-234, cloth. 1885. 9s. 

DUSAR. A GRAMMAR OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE ; with Exercises. By P. Friedrich 
Dusar, First German Master in the Military Department of Cheltenham College. 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 208, cloth. 1879. 4s. 6d. 

DUSAR. A GRAMMATICAL COURSE OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. By P. Friedrich 
Dusar. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. x. and 134, cloth. 1883. 3s. 6d. 

DYMOCK. THE VEGETABLE MATERIA MEDICA OF WESTERN INDIA. By W. 
Dymock, Surgeon-Major Bombay Army, &c. &c. To be completed in four parts. 
8vo, Part I, pp. 160 ; Part II., pp. 168; wrappers, 4s. each. 

EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY. Subscription, one guinea per annum. Extra 
Series. Subscriptions Small paper, one guinea; large paper, two guineas, per 
annum. List of publications on application. 

EASTWICK. KHIRAD AFROZ (the Illuminator of the Understanding). By Maulavi 
Hafizu'd-din. A New Edition of the Hindustani Text, carefully revised, with 
Notes, Critical and Explanatory. By Edward B. Eastwick, F.R.S., M.R. A.S., &c. 
Imperial 8vo, pp. xiv. and 319, cloth. Reissue, 1867. 18s. 

EASTWICK. THE GULISTAN. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

EBERS. THE EMPEROR. A Romance. By Georg Ebers. Translated from the 
German by Clara Bell. In two volumes, 16mo, pp. iv. 319 and 322, cloth. 1881. 
7s. 6d. Paper, 5s. 

EBERS. A QUESTION : The Idyl of a Picture by his friend, Alma Tadema. Related 
by Georg Ebers. From the German, by Mary J. SAFFORD. 16mo, pp. 125, with 
Frontispiece, cloth. 1881. 4s. Paper, 2s. 6d. 

EBERS. SERAPIS. A Romance. By Georg Ebers. From the German by Clara 
Bell. 16mo, pp. iv.-388, cloth. 1885. 4s. Paper, 2s. 6d. 

ECHO (DEUTSCHES). THE GERMAN ECHO. A Faithful Mirror of German Conver- 
sation. By Ludwig Wolfram. With a Vocabulary. By Henry P. Skelton. 
Post 8vo, pp. 130 and 70, cloth. 1863. 3s. 

ECHO FRANCAIS. A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO CONVERSATION. By Fr. de la Fniston. 
With a complete Vocabulary. By Anthony Maw Border. Post 8vo, pp. 120 and 
72, cloth. 1860. 3s. 

ECO ITALIANO (L'). A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO ITALIAN CONVERSATION. By Eugene 
Camerini. With a complete Vocabulary. By Henry P. Skelton. Post 8vo, pp. 
vi., 128, and 98, cloth. 1860. 4s. 6d. 

ECO DE MADRID. THE ECHO OF MADRID. A Practical Guide to Spanish Con- 
versation. By J. E. Hartzenbusch and Henry Lemming. With a complete 
Vocabulary, containing copious Explanatory Remarks. By Hjnry Lemming. 
Post 8vo, pp. xii., 144, and 83, cloth. 1860. 5s. 



20 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

ECKSTEIN. PRUSIAS : A Romance of Ancient Rome under the Republic. By 
Ernst Eckstein. From the German by Clara Bell. Two vols. 16mo, pp. 356 
and 336. cloth. 1884. 7s. 6d. ; paper, 5s. 

ECKSTEIN. QUINTUS CLAUDIUS. A Romance of Imperial Rome. By Ernst 
Eckstein. From the German by Clara Bell, Two vols. 16mo, pp. 314 and 
304, cloth. 1884. 7s. 6d. ; paper, 5s. 

EDDA S^EMUNDAB HINNS FRODA. The Edda of Ssemund the Learned. Translated 
from the Old Norse, by Benjamin Thorpe. Complete in 1 vol. fcap. 8vo, pp. viii. 
and 152, and pp. viii. and 170, cloth. 1866. 7s. 6d. 

EDGREN. SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. See Triibner's Collection. 

EDKINS. CHINA'S PLACE IN PHILOLOGY. An attempt to show that the Languages 
of Europe and Asia have a common origin. By the Rev. Joseph Edkins. Crown 
8vo, pp. xxiii. and 403, cloth. 1871. 10s. 6d. 

EDKINS. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE CHINESE CHARACTERS. By J. Edkins, 
D.D., Peking, China. Royal 8vo, pp. 340, paper boards. 1876. 18s. 

EDKINS. RELIGION IN CHINA. See English and Foreign Philosophical Library, 
Vol. VIII., or Trubner's Oriental Series. 

EDKINS. CHINESE BUDDHISM. See Trubner's Oriental Series. 

EDMONDS. GREEK LAYS, IDYLLS, LEGENDS, &c. A Selection from Recent and 
Contemporary Poets. Translated by E. M. Edmonds. With Introduction and 
Notes. Crown 8vo, pp. xiv. and 264, cloth. 1885. 6s. 6d. 

EDMUNDSON. MILTON AND VONDEL : a Curiosity of Literature. By George 
Edmundson, M.A., Late Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford, Vicar of 
Northolt, Middlesex. Crown 8vo, pp. , cloth. 

EDWARDS. MEMOIRS OF LIBRARIES, together with a Practical Handbook of Library 
Economy. By Edward Edwards. Numerous Illustrations. 2 vols. royal 8vo, cloth. 
Vol. i. pp. xxviii. and 841 ; Vol. ii. pp. xxxvi. and 1104. 1859. 2, 8s. 
DITTO, large paper, imperial 8vo, cloth. 4, 4s. 

EDWARDS. CHAPTERS OF THE BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF THE FRENCH ACADEMY. 
1629-1863. With an Appendix relating to the Unpublished Chronicle " Liber de 
Hyda." By Edward Edwards. 8vo, pp. 180, cloth. 1864. 6s. 
DITTO, large paper, royal 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

EDWARDS. LIBRARIES AND FOUNDERS OF LIBRARIES. By Edward Edwards. 8vo, 
pp. xix. and 506, cloth. 1865. 18s. 

DITTO, large paper, imperial 8vo, cloth. 1, 10s. 

EDWARDS. FREE TOWN LIBRARIES, their Formation, Management, and History in 
Britain, France, Germany, and America. Together with Brief Notices of Book 
Collectors, and of the respective Places of Deposit of their Surviving Collections. 
By Edward Edwards. 8vo, pp. xvi. and 634, cloth. 1869. 21s. 

EDWARDS. LIVES OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM, with Notices of its 
Chief Augmentors and other Benefactors. 1570-1870. By Edward Edwards. 
With Illustrations and Plans. 2 vols. 8vo, pp. xii. and 780, cloth. 1870. 30s. 

EDWARDES. See ENGLISH AND FOREIGN PHILOSOPHICAL LIBRARY, Vol. XVII. 

E6ER. TECHNOLOGICAL DICTIONARY IN THE ENGLISH AND GERMAN LANGUAGES. 
Edited by Gustav Eger, Professor of the Polytechnic School of Darmstadt, and 
Sworn Translator of the Grand Ducal Ministerial Departments. Technically 
Revised and Enlarged by Otto Brandes, Chemist. Two vols., royal 8vo, pp, viii. 
and 712, and pp. viii. and 970, cloth. 1884. 1, 7s. 

EGER AND GRIME. An Early English Romance. Edited from Bishop Percy's 
Folio Manuscripts, about 1650 A.D. By J. W. Hales, M.A., Fellow of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, and F. J. Furnivall, M.A., of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. 4to, 
large paper, half bound, Roxburghe style, pp. 64. 1867. 10s. 6d. 
EGERTON. SUSSEX FOLK AND SUSSEX WAYS. Stray Studies in the Wealden For- 
mation of Human Nature. By the Rev. J. Coker Egerton, M.A., Rector of Bur- 
wash. Crown 8vo, pp. 140, cloth. 1884. 2s. 



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EGGELING. See AucTOKES SANSKRITI, Vols. IV. and V. 
EGYPT EXPLOEATION FUND : 

THE STORE-CITY OF PITHOM, and the Route of the Exodus. By Edouard Naville. 
4to, pp. viii. and 32, with Thirteen Plates and Two Maps, boards. 1885. 25s. 
EGYPTIAN GENERAL STAFF PUBLICATIONS : 

GENERAL REPORT ON THE PROVINCE OF KORDOFAN. Submitted to General C. P. 
Stone, Chief of the General Staff Egyptian Army. By Major H. G. Prout, 
Commanding Expedition of Reconnaissance. Made at El-Obeiyad (Kordofan), 
March 12th, 1876. Royal 8vo, pp. 232, stitched, with 6 Maps. 1877. 10s. 6d. 
PROVINCES OF THE EQUATOR : Summary of Letters and Reports of the Governor- 
General. Part 1. 1874. Royal 8vo, pp. viii. and 90, stitched, with Map. 
1877. 5s. 

REPORT ON THE SEIZURE BY THE ABYSSINIANS of the Geological and Mineralo- 
gical Reconnaissance Expedition attached to the General Staff of the Egyptian 
Army. By L. H. Mitchell, Chief of the Expedition. Containing an Account 
of the subsequent Treatment of the Prisoners and Final Release of the Com- 
mander. Royal 8vo, pp. xii. and 126, stitched, with a Map. 1878. 7s. 6d. 
EGYPTIAN CALENDAR for the year 1295 A.H. (1878 A.D.) : Corresponding with the 

years 1594, 1595 of the Koptic Era. 8vo, pp. 98, sewed. 1878. 2s. 6d. 
EHRLICH. FRENCH READER : With Notes and Vocabulary. By H. W. Ehrlich. 

12mo, pp. viii. and 125, limp cloth. 1877. Is. 6d. 

EITEL. BUDDHISM : Its Historical, Theoretical, and Popular Aspects. In Three 
Lectures. By E. J. Eitel, M.A., Ph.D. Third Revised Edition. Demy 8vo, 
pp. x.-146. 1884. 5s. 

EITEL. FENG-SHUI ; or, The Rudiments of Natural Science in China. By E. J. 
Eitel, M.A., Ph.D. Royal 8vo, pp. vi. and 84, sewed. 1873. 6s. 

EITEL. HANDBOOK FOR THE STUDENT OF CHINESE BUDDHISM. By the Rev. E. J. 
Eitel, of the London Missionary Society. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 224, cloth. 
1870. 18s. 

ELLIOT. MEMOIRS ON THE HISTORY, FOLK-LORE, AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES 
OF THE NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES OF INDIA. By the late Sir Henry M. Elliot, 
K.C.B. Edited, revised, and rearranged by John Beames, M.R.A.S., &c., &c. In 
2 vols. demy 8vo, pp. xx., 370, and 396, with 3 large coloured folding Maps, cloth. 
1869. 1 16s. 

ELLIOT. THE HISTORY OF INDIA, as told by its own Historians. The Muhammadan 
Period. Edited from the Posthumous Papers of the late Sir H. M. Elliot, K.C.B., 
East India Company's Bengal Civil Service. Revised and continued by Professor 
John Dowson, M.R.A.S., Staff College, Sandhurst. 8vo. Vol. I. Vol. II., 
pp. x. and 580, cloth. Vol. III., pp. xii. and 627, cloth. 24s. Vol. IV., 
pp. xii. and 564, cloth. 1872. 21s. Vol. V., pp. x. and 576, cloth. 1873. 
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28 A Catalogue of Important Works. 

GREG. MISTAKEN AIMS AND ATTAINABLE IDEALS OP THE ARTISAN CLASS. By W. 
R. Greg. Crown 8vo, pp. vi. and 332, cloth. 1876. 10s. 6d. 

GKEG. ENIGMAS OF LIFE. By W. R. Greg. Fifteenth Edition, with a postscript. 
Contents : Realisable Ideals. Malthus Notwithstanding. Non-Survival of the 
Fittest. Limits and Directions of Human Development. The Significance of Life. 
De Profundis. Elsewhere. Appendix. Post 8vo, pp. xxii. and 314, cloth. 
1883. 10s. 6d. 

GREG. POLITICAL PROBLEMS FOR OUR AGE AND COUNTRY. By W. R. Greg. Con- 
tents : I. Constitutional and Autocratic Statesmanship. II. England's Future 
Attitude and Mission. III. Disposal of the Criminal Classes. IV. Recent 
Change in the Character of English Crime. V. The Intrinsic Vice of Trade- 
Unions. VI. Industrial and Co-operative Partnerships. VII. The Economic 
Problem. VIII. Political Consistency. IX. The Parliamentary Career. X. The 
Price we pay for Self-government. XI. Vestryism. XII. Direct v. Indirect 
Taxation. XIII. The New Regime, and how to meet it. Demy 8vo, pp. 342, 
cloth. 1870. 10s. 6d. 

GREG. THE GREAT DUEL : Its True Meaning and Issues. By W. R. Greg. Crown 
8vo, pp. 96, cloth. 1871. 2s. 6d. 

GREG. THE CREED OF CHRISTENDOM. See English and Foreign Philosophical 

Library, Vols. V. and VI. 

GREG. ROCKS AHEAD ; or, The Warnings of Cassandra. By W. R. Greg. Second 
Edition, with a Reply to Objectors. Crown 8vo, pp. xliv. and 236, cloth. 1874. 
9s. 

GREG. MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS. By W. R. Greg. First Series. Crown 8vo, 
pp. iv.-268, cloth. 1881. 7s. 6d. 

CONTENTS : Rocks Ahead and Harbours of Refuge. Foreign Policy of Great 
Britain. The Echo of the Antipodes. A Grave Perplexity before us. Obli- 
gations of the Soil. The Right Use of a Surplus. The Great Twin 
Brothers : Louis Napoleon and Benjamin Disraeli. Is the Popular Judgment 
in Politics more Just than that of the Higher Orders? Harriet Martineau. 
Verify your Compass. The Prophetic Element in the Gospels. Mr. Frederick 
Harrison on the Future Life. Can Truths be Apprehended which could 
not have been Discovered ? 

GREG. MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS. By W. R. Greg. Second Series. Pp. 294. 1884. 
7s. 6d. 

CONTENTS : France since 1848. France in January 1852. England as it is. 
Sir R. Peel's Character and Policy. Employment .of our Asiatic Forces in 
European Wars. 

GRIFFIN. THE RAJAS OF THE PUNJAB. Being the History of the Principal States 
in the Punjab, and their Political Relations with the British Government. By 
Lepel H. Griffin, Bengal Civil Service, Acting Secretary to the Government of the 
Punjab, Author of "The Punjab Chiefs," &c. Second Edition. Royal 8vo, 
pp. xvi. and 630, cloth. 1873. 1, Is. 

GRIFFIN. THE WORLD UNDER GLASS. By Frederick Griffin, Author of "The 
Destiny of Man," "The Storm King," and other Poems. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 204; 
cloth gilt. 1879. 3s. 6d. 
GRIFFIN. THE DESTINY OF MAN, THE STORM KING, and other Poems. By F. 

Griffin. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo, pp. vii.-104, cloth. 1883. 2s. 6d. 
GRIFFIS. THE MIKADO'S EMPIRE. Book I. History of Japan, from 660 B.C. to 
1872 A.D. Book II. Personal Experiences, Observations, and Studies in Japan, 
1870-1874. By W. E. Griffis, A.M. Second Edition. 8vo, pp. 626, cloth. Illus- 
trated. 1883. 20s. 
GRIFFIS. JAPANESE FAIRY WORLD. Stories from the Wonder- Lore of Japan. By 

W. E. Griffis. Square 16mo, pp. viii. and 304, with 12 Plates. 1880. 7s. 6d. 
GRIFFITH. THE BIRTH OF THE WAR GOD. See Trubner's Oriental Series. 



Published by Trubner & Co. 29 

GRIFFITH. YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

GRIFFITH. SCENES FEOM THE RAMAYANA, MEGHADUTA, &c. Translated by Ralph 
T. H. Griffith, M.A., Principal of the Benares College. Second Edition. Crown 
8vo, pp. xviii. and 244, cloth. 1870. 6s. 

CONTENTS Preface Ayodhya Ravan Doomed The Birth of Kama The Heir-Apparent 

Manthara's Guile Dasaratha's Oath The Step-mother Mother and Son The Triumph of 
Love Farewell ? The Hermit's Son The Trial of Truth The Forest The Rape of Sita 
Rama's Despair The Messenger Cloud Ehumbakarna The Suppliant Dove True Glory 
Feed the Poor The Wise Scholar. 

GRIFFITH. THE RIMA"YAN OF VlLMfkl. Translated into English Terse. By Ealph 
T. H. Griffith, M.A., Principal of the Benares College. Vol. I., containing Books 
I. and II., demy 8vo, pp. xxxii. and 440, cloth. 1870. Vol. II., containing 



Book II., with additional Notes and Index of Names. Demy 8vo, pp. 504, cloth. 
1871. -Vol. III., demy 8vo, pp. 390, cloth. 1872. Vol. IV., demy 
8vo, pp. viii. and 432, cloth. 1873. Vol. V., demy 8vo, pp. viii. and 360, 



1871. -Vol. III., demy 8vo, pp. 390, cloth. 1872. Vol. IV., demy 
8vo, pp. viii. and 432, cloth. 1873. Vol. V. 
cloth. 1875. The complete work, 5 vols. 7, 7s. 

GROTE. REVIEW of the Work of Mr. John Stuart Mill entitled "Examination of 
Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy. " By George Grote, Author of the ' ' History 
of Ancient Greece," " Plato, and the other Companions of Socrates," &c. 12mo, 
pp. 112, cloth. 1868. 3s. 6d. 

GROUT. ZULU-LAND ; or, Life among the Zulu-Kafirs of Natal and Zulu-Land, 
South Africa. By the Rev. Lewis Grout. Crown 8vo, pp. 352, cloth. With 
Map and Illustrations. 7s. 6d. 

GROWSE. MATHURA : A District Memoir. By F. S. Growse, B.C.S., M.A., Oxon, 
C.I.E., Fellow of the Calcutta University. Second edition, illustrated, revised, 
and enlarged, 4to, pp. xxiv. and 520, boards. 1880. 42s. 

GUBERNATIS. ZOOLOGICAL MYTHOLOGY ; or, The Legends of Animals. By Angelo 
de Gubernatis, Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Literature in the Institute 
di Studii Superorii e di Perfezionamento at Florence, &c. 2 vols. 8vo, pp. xxvi. 
and 432, and vii. and 442, cloth. 1872. ], 8s. 

This work is an important contribution to the study of the comparative mythology of the Indo- 
Germanic nations. The author introduces the denizens of the air, earth, and water in the vari- 
ous characters assigned to them in the myths and legends of all civilised nations, and traces the 
migration of the mythological ideas from the times of the early Aryans to those of the Greeks, 
Romans, and Teutons. 

GULSHAN I. RAZ : THE MYSTIC ROSE GARDEN OF SA'D UD DIN MAHMUD SHABIS- 
TARI. The Persian Text, with an English Translation and Notes, chiefly from the 
Commentary of Muhammed Bin Yahya Lahiji. By E. H. Whinfield, M.A., Bar- 
rister-at-Law, late of H.M.B.C.S. 4to, pp. xvi., 94, 60, cloth. 1880. 10s. 6d. 

GUMPACH. TREATY RIGHTS OF THE FOREIGN MERCHANT, and the Transit System 
in China. By Johannes von Gumpach. 8vo, pp. xviii. and 421, sewed. 10s. 6d. 

HAAS. CATALOGUE OF SANSKRIT AND PALI BOOKS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. By 
Dr. Ernst Haas. Printed by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum. 
4to, pp. viii. and 188, paper boards. 1876. 21s. 

HAFIZ OF SHIRAZ. SELECTIONS FROM HIS POEMS. Translated from the Persian 
by Hermann Bicknell. With Preface by A. S. Bicknell. Demy 4to, pp. xx. and 
384, printed on fine stout plate-paper, with appropriate Oriental Bordering in gold 
and colour, and Illustrations by J. R. Herbert, R.A. 1875. 2, 2s. 

HAFIZ. See Trubner's Oriental Series. 

HAGEN. NORICA ; or, Tales from the Olden Time. Translated from the German of 
August Hagen. Fcap. 8vo, pp. xiv. and 374. 1850. 5s. 

HAGGARD. CETYWAYO AND HIS WHITE NEIGHBOURS ; or, Remarks on Recent 
Events in Zululand, Natal, and the Transvaal. By H. R. Haggard. Crown 8vo, 
pp. xvi. and 294, cloth. 1882. 7s. 6d. 



30 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

HAGGARD. See "The Vazir of Lankuran." 

HAHN. TSUNI-IIGOAM, the Supreme Being of the Khoi-Khoi. By Theophilus 
Hahn, Ph.D., Custodian of the Grey Collection, Cape Town, &c., &c. Post 8vo, 
pp. xiv. and 154. 1882. 7s. 6d. 

HALDANE. See SCHOPENHAUER, or ENGLISH AND FOREIGN PHILOSOPHICAL 
LIBRARY, vol. xxii. 

HALDEM AN. PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH : A Dialect of South Germany with an Infusion 
of English. By S. S. Haldeman, A.M., Professor of Comparative Philology in the 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 8vo, pp. viii. and 70, cloth. 1872. 3s. 
6d. 

HALL. ON ENGLISH ADJECTIVES IN -ABLE, WITH SPECIAL EEPERENCE TO RELIABLE. 
By FitzEdward Hall, C.E., M.A., Hon. D.C.L. Oxon; formerly Professor of 
Sanskrit Language and Literature, and of Indian Jurisprudence in King's College, 
London. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 238, cloth. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

HALL. MODERN ENGLISH. By FitzEdward Hall, M. A., Hon. D.C.L. Oxon. Crown 
8vo, pp. xvi. and 394, cloth. 1873. 10s. 6d. 

HALL. SUN AND EARTH AS GREAT FORCES IN CHEMISTRY. By T. W. Hall, M.D., 
L.R.C.S.E. Crown 8vo, pp. xii. and 220, cloth. 1874. 3s. 

HALL. THE PEDIGREE OF THE DEVIL. By F. T. Hall, F.R.A.S. "With Seven 
Autotype Illustrations from Designs by the Author. Demy 8vo, pp. xvi. and 
256, cloth. 1883. 7s. 6d. 

HALL. ARCTIC EXPEDITION. See NOURSE. 

HALLOCK. THE SPORTSMAN'S GAZETTEER AND GENERAL GUIDE. The Game 
Animals, Birds, and Fishes of North America : their Habits and various methods 
of Capture, &c., &c. With a Directory to the principal Game Resorts of the 
Country. By Charles Hallock. New Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth. Maps and 
Portrait. 1883. 15s. 

HAM. THE MAID OF CORINTH. A Drama in Four Acts. By J. Panton Ham, 
Crown 8vo, pp. 65, sewed. 2s. 6d. 

HARLEY. THE SIMPLIFICATION OF ENGLISH SPELLING, specially adapted to the Ris- 
ing Generation. An Easy Way of Saving Time in Writing, Printing, and Reading. 
By Dr. George Harley, F.R.S., F.C.S. 8vo. pp. 128, cloth. 1877. 2s. 6d. 

HARRISON. WOMAN'S HANDIWORK IN MODERN HOMES. By Constance Gary 
Harrison. With numerous Illustrations and Five Coloured Plates, from designs 
by Samuel Colman, Rosina Emmet, George Gibson, and others. 8vo, pp. xii. and 
242, cloth. 1881. 10s. 

HARTMANN.-See English and Foreign Philosophical Library, vol. XXV. 

HARTZENBUSCH and LEMMING. Eco DE MADRID. A Practical Guide to Spanish 
Conversation. By J. E. Hartzenbusch and H. Lemming. Second Edition. Post 
8yo, pp. 250, cloth. 1870. 5s. 

HASE. MIRACLE PLAYS AND SACRED DRAMAS : An Historical Survey. By Dr. 
Karl Hase. Translated from the German by A. W. Jackson, and Edited by the 
Rev. W. W. Jackson, Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. Crown 8vo, pp. 288. 
1880. 9s. 

HAUG. GLOSSARY AND INDEX of the Pahlavi Texts of the Book of Arda Viraf, 
the Tale of Gosht J. Fryano, the Hadokht Nask, and to some extracts from the 
Dinkard and Nirangistan ; prepared from Destur Hoshangji Jamaspji Asa's 
Glossary to the Arda Viraf Namak, and from the Original Texts, with Notes on 
Pahlavi Grammar by E. W. West, Ph.D. Revised by M. Haug, Ph.D., &c. 
Published by order of the Bombay Government. 8vo, pp. viii. and 352, sewed. 
1874. 25s. 



Published by Trubner & Co. 31 

HAUG.- THE SACRED LANGUAGE, &c. , OP THE PAKSIS. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

HAUPT. THE LONDON ARBITRAGEUR; or, The English. Money Market, in con- 
nection with Foreign Bourses. A Collection of Notes and Formulae for the Arbi- 
tration of Bills, Stocks, Shares, Bullion, and Coins, with all the Important 
Foreign Countries. By Ottomar Haupt. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 196, cloth. 
1870. 7s. 6d. 

HAWKEN. TJPA-SASTRA : Comments, Linguistic, Doctrinal, on Sacred and Mythic 
Literature. By J. D. Hawken. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 288, cloth. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

HAZEN. THE SCHOOL AND THE ARMY IN GERMANY AND FRANCE, with a Diary of Siege 
Life at Versailles. By Brevet Major- General W. B. Hazen, U.S.A., Col. 6th In- 
fantry. 8vo, pp. 408, cloth. 1872. 10s. 6d. 

HEATH. EDGAR QUINET. See English and Foreign Philosophical Library, Vol. 
XIV. 

HEATON AUSTRALIAN DICTIONARY OF DATES AND MEN OF THE TIME. Containing 
the History of Australasia from 1542 to May 1879. By I. H. Heaton. Royal 8vo, 
pp. iv. and 554, cloth. 15s. 

HEBREW LITERATURE SOCIETY. 

HECELER. THE JERUSALEM BISHOPRIC DOCUMENTS. With Translations, chiefly 
derived from "Das Evangelische Bisthum in Jerusalem," Geschichtliche Dar- 
legung mit Urtunden. Berlin, 1842. Published by Command of His Majesty 
Frederick William IV., King of Prussia: Arranged and Supplemented by the 
Rev. Prof. William H. Hechler, British Chaplain at Stockholm. 8vo, pp. 212, 
with Maps, Portrait, and Illustrations, cloth. 1883. 10s. 6d. 

HECKER. THE EPIDEMICS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. Translated by G. B. Babington, 
M.D., F.K.S. Third Edition, completed by the Author's Treatise on Child-Pil- 
grimages. By J. F. C. Hecker. 8vo, pp. 384, cloth. 1859. 9s. 6d. 
CONTENTS. The Black Death The Dancing Mania The Sweating Sickness Child Pil- 
grimages. 

HEDLEY. MASTERPIECES OF GERMAN POETRY. Translated in the Measure of the 
Originals, by F. H. Hedley. With Illustrations by Louis Wanke. Crown 8vo, 
pp. viii. and 120, cloth. 1876. 6s. 

HEINE. RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY IN GERMANY. See English and Foreign 
Philosophical Library, Vol. XVIII. 

HEINE. WIT, WISDOM, AND PATHOS from the Prose of Heinrich Heine. With a 
few pieces from the " Book of Songs." Selected and Translated by J. Snodgrass. 
With Portrait. Crown 8vo, pp. xx. and 340, cloth. 1879. 7s. 6d. 

HEINE. PICTURES OF TRAVEL. Translated from the German of Henry Heine, by 
Charles G. Leland. 7th Revised Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. 472, with Portrait, 
cloth. 1873. 7s. 6d. 

HEINE. HEINE'S BOOK OF SONGS. Translated by Charles G. Leland. Fcap. 8vo, 
pp. xiv. and 240, cloth, gilt edges. 1874. 7s. 6d. 

HEITZMANN. MICROSCOPICAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE ANIMAL BODY IN HEALTH 
AND DISEASE. By C. HEITZMANN, M.D. Royal 8vo, pp. xx.-850, cloth. 1884. 
31s. 6d. 

HENDRIK. MEMOIRS OF HANS HENDRIK, THE ARCTIC TRAVELLER ; serving under 
Kane, Hayes, Hall, and Nares, 1853-76. Written by Himself. Translated from 
the Eskimo Language, by Dr. Henry Rink. Edited by Prof. Dr. G. Stephens, 
F.S.A. Crown 8vo, pp. 100, Map, cloth. 1878. 3s. 6d. 

HENNELL. PRESENT RELIGION: As a Faith owning Fellowship with Thought. 
Vol. I. Part I. By Sara S. Hennell. Crown 8vo, pp. 570, cloth. 1865. 7s. 6d. 

HENNELL. COMPARATIVISM ; An Introduction to the Second Part of "Present 
Religion," explaining the Principle by which Religion appears still to be set in 
Necessary Antagonism to Positivism. By Sara S. Hennell. 8vo, pp. 160, cloth. 
1869. 3s. 

HENNELL. COMPARATIVE ETHICS I. Section I. Moral Standpoint. Present 
Religion, Vol. III. By Sara S. Hennell. 8vo, pp. 66, wrapper. 1882. 2s. 



32 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

HENNELL. COMPARATIVE ETHICS I. Sections II. and III. Moral Principle in 
Kegard to Sexhood. Present Keligion, Vol. III. By S. Hennell. Crown 8vo, 
pp. 92, wrapper. 1884. 2s. 

HENNELL. PRESENT RELIGION : As a Faith owning Fellowship with Thought. 
Part II. First Division. Intellectual Effect : shown as a Principle of Metaphy- 
sical Comparativism. By Sara S. Hennell. Crown 8vo, pp. 618, cloth. 1873. 
7s. 6d. 

HENNELL. PRESENT RELIGION, Vol. III. Part II. Second Division. The Effect 
of Present Religion on its Practical Side. By S. S. Hennell. Crown 8vo, pp. 68 y 
paper covers. 1882. 2s. 

HENNELL. COMPARATIVISM shown as Furnishing a Religious Basis to Morality. 
(Present Religion. Vol. III. Part II. Second Division: Practical Effect. ) By 
Sara S. Hennell. Crown 8vo, pp. 220, stitched in wrapper. 1878. 3s. 6d. 

HENNELL. COMPARATIVE ETHICS. II. Sections I. and II. Moral Principle in 
regard to Brotherhood. (Present Religion, Vol. III.) By Sara S. Hennell. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 52, wrapper. 1884. 2s. 

HENNELL. THOUGHTS IN AID OF FAITH. Gathered chiefly from recent Works in 
Theology and Philosophy. By Sara S. Hennell. Post 8vo, pp. 428, cloth. 1860. 6s. 

HENWOOD. THE METALLIFEROUS DEPOSITS OF CORNWALL AND DEVON ; with Ap- 
pendices on Subterranean Temperature ; the Electricity of Rocks and Veins ; the 
Quantities of Water in the Cornish Mines ; and Mining Statistics. (Vol. V. of 
the Transactions of the Royal Geographical Society of Cornwall.) By William 
Jory Kenwood, F.R.S., F.G.S. 8vo, pp. x. and 515; with 113 Tables, and 12 
Plates, half bound. 2, 2s. 

HENWOOD. OBSERVATIONS ON METALLIFEROUS DEPOSITS, AND ON SUBTERRANEAN 
TEMPERATURE. (Vol. VIII. of the Transactions of the Royal Geological Society 
of Cornwall.) By William Jory Henwood, F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the 
Royal Institution of Cornwall. In 2 Parts. 8vo, pp. xxx., vii. and 916; with 
38 Tables, 31 Engravings on Wood, and 6 Plates. 1, 16s. 

HEPBURN. A JAPANESE AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY. With an English and Japanese 
Index. By J. C. Hepburn, M.D., LL.D. Second Edition. Imperial 8vo, pp. 
xxxii., 632, and 201, cloth. 8, 8s. 

HEPBURN. JAPANESE-ENGLISH AND ENGLISH-JAPANESE DICTIONARY. By J. C. 
Hepburn, M.D., LL.D. Abridged by the Author. Square fcap., pp. vi. and 536, 
cloth. 1873. 18s. 

HERNISZ. A GUIDE TO CONVERSATION IN THE ENGLISH AND CHINESE LANGUAGES, 
for the Use of Americans and Chinese in California and elsewhere. By Stanislas 
Hernisz. Square 8vo, pp. 274, sewed. 1855. 10s. 6d. 

HERSHON. TALMUDIC MISCELLANY. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

HERZEN. Du DEVELOPPEMENT DBS IDEES REVOLUTIONNAIRES EN RUSSIE. Par 
Alexander Herzen. 12mo, pp. xxiii. and 144, sewed. 1853. 2s. 6d. 

HERZEN. A separate list of A. Herzen's works in Russian may be had on 
application. 

HILL. THE HISTORY OF THE REFORM MOVEMENT in the Dental Profession in Great 
Britain during the last twenty years. By Alfred Hill, Licentiate in Dental Sur- 
gery, &c. Crown 8vo, pp. xvi. and 400, cloth. 1877. 10s. 6d. 

HILLEBRAND. FRANCE AND THE FRENCH IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE NINE- 
TEENTH CENTURY. By Karl Hillebrand. Translated from the Third German 
Edition. Post 8vo, pp. xx. and 262, cloth. 1881. 10s. 6d. 

HINDOO MYTHOLOGY POPULARLY TREATED. Being an Epitomised Description of 
the various Heathen Deities illustrated on the Silver Swami Tea Service pre- 
sented, as a memento of his visit to India, to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, K.G., 
G.C.S,!., by His Highness the Gaekwar of Baroda. Small 4to, pp. 42, limp cloth. 
1875. 3s. 6d. 



Published ly Trubner & Co. 33 

HITTELL. THE COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF THE PACIFIC COAST OF NORTH 

AMERICA. By J. S. Hittell, Author of "The Resources of California." 4to, 

pp. 820. 1882. 1, 10s. 
HODGSON. ACADEMY LECTURES. By J. E. Hodgson, R.A., Librarian and Professor 

of Painting to the Royal Academy. Cr. 8vo, pp. viii. and 312, cloth. 1884. 7s. 6d. 
HODGSON. ESSAYS ON THE LANGUAGES, LITERATURE, AND RELIGION OF NEPAL 

AND TIBET. Together with further Papers on the Geography, Ethnology, and 

Commerce of those Countries. By B. H. Hodgson, late British Minister at the 

Court of Nepal. Royal 8vo, cloth, pp. xii. and 276. 1874. 14s. 
HODGSON. ESSAYS ON INDIAN SUBJECTS. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 
HODGSON. THE EDUCATION OF GIRLS; AND THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN OF 

THE UPPER CLASSES EDUCATIONALLY CONSIDERED. Two Lectures. By W. B. 

Hodgson, LL.D. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo, pp. xvi. and 114, cloth. 1869. 3s. 6d. 
HODGSON. TURGOT : His Life, Times, and Opinions. Two Lectures. By W. B. 

Hodgson, LL.D. Crown 8vo, pp. vi. and 83, sewed. 1870. 2s. 
HOERNLE. A COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE GAUDIAN LANGUAGES, with Special 

Reference to the Eastern Hindi. Accompanied by a Language Map, and a Table 

of Alphabets. By A. F. Rudolf Hoernle. Demy 8vo, pp. 474, cloth. 1880. 18s. 
HOLBEIN SOCIETY. Subscription, one guinea per annum. List of publications 

on application. 
HOLMES-FORBES. THE SCIENCE OF BEAUTY. An Analytical Inquiry into the 

Laws of ^Esthetics. By Avary W. Holmes-Forbes, of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at- 

Law. Post 8vo, cloth, pp. vi. and 200. 1881. 6s. 
HOLST. THE CONSTITUTIONAL AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

By Dr. H. von Hoist. Translated by J. J. Lalor and A. B. Mason. Royal 8vo. 

Vol. I. 1750-1833. State Sovereignty and Slavery. Pp. xvi. and 506. 1876. 18s. 

Vol.11. 1828-1846. Jackson's Administration Annexation of Texas. Pp. 

720. 1879. 1, 2s. Vol. III. 1846-1850. Annexation of Texas Compromise 

of 1850. Pp. x. and 598. 1881. 18s. 
HOLYOAEE. TRAVELS IN SEARCH OF A SETTLER'S GUIDE-BOOK OF AMERICA AND 

CANADA. By George Jacob Holyoake, Author of "The History of Co-operation 

in England." Post 8vo, pp. 148, wrapper. 1884. 2s. 6d. 
HOLYOAKE. THE HISTORY OF CO-OPERATION IN ENGLAND : its Literature and its 

Advocates. By G. J. Holyoake. Vol. I. The Pioneer Period, 1812-44. Crown 

8vo, pp. xii. and 420, cloth. 1875. 4s. Vol. II. The Constructive Period, 1845- 

78. Crown 8vo, pp. x. and 504, cloth. 1878. 8s. 
HOLYOAKE. THE TRIAL OF THEISM ACCUSED OF OBSTRUCTING SECULAR LIFE. By 

G. J. Holyoake. Crown 8vo, pp. xvi. and 256, cloth. 1877. 2s. 6d. 
HOLYOAKE. REASONING FROM FACTS : A Method of Everyday Logic. By G. J. 

Holyoake. Fcap., pp. xii. and 94, wrapper. 1877. Is. 6d. 
HOLYOAKE. SELF-HELP BY THE PEOPLE. Thirty-three Years of Co-operation in 

Rochdale. In Two Parts. Part I., 1844-1857; Part II., 1857-1877. By G. J. 

Holyoake. Ninth Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. 174, cloth. 1883. 2s. 6d. 
HOPKINS. ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF THE TURKISH LANGUAGE. "With a few Easy 

Exercises. By F. L. Hopkins, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge. Crown 8vo, pp. 48, cloth. 1877. 3s. 6d. 
BORDER. A SELECTION FROM " THE BOOK OF PRAISE FOR CHILDREN," as Edited 

by "W. Garrett Horder. For the Use of Jewish Children. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 80, 

cloth. 1883. Is. 6d. 
HOSMER. THE PEOPLE AND POLITICS; or, The Structure of States and the 

Significance and Relation of Political Forms. By G. W. Hosmer, M.D. Demy 

8vo, pp. viii. and 340, cloth. 1883. 15s. 
HOWELLS. A LITTLE GIRL AMONG THE OLD MASTERS. With Introduction and 

Comment. By W. D. Howells. Oblong crown 8vo, cloth, pp. 66, with 54 plates. 

1884. 10s. 

C 



34 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

HOWELLS. DR. BREEN'S PRACTICE : A Novel. By W. D. How ells. English 
Copyright Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. 272, cloth. 1882. 6s. 

HOWSE. A GRAMMAR OF THE CREE LANGUAGE. With which is combined an 
Analysis of the Chippeway Dialect. By Joseph Howse, F.R.G.S. 8vo, pp. xx. 
and 324, cloth. 1865. 7s. 6d. 

HULME. MATHEMATICAL DRAWING INSTRUMENTS, AND How TO USE THEM. By 
F. Edward Hulme, F.L.S., F.S.A., Art-Master of. Marlborough College, Author of 
"Principles of Ornamental Art," &c. With Illustrations. Second Edition. 
Imperial 16mo, pp. xvi. and 152, cloth. 1881. 3s. 6d. 

HUMBERT. ON "TENANT RIGHT." By C. F. Humbert. 8vo, pp. 20, sewed. 
1875. Is. 

HUMBOLDT. THE SPHERE AND DUTIES OF GOVERNMENT. Translated from the 
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LELAND. GAUDEAMUS. Humorous Pcems translated from the German of Joseph 
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3s. 6d. 



Published by Triibner & Co. 41 

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LELAND. THE ENGLISH GIPSIES AND THEIR LANGUAGE. By Charles G. Leland. 

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LELAND. FU-SANG ; OR, THE DISCOVERT OP AMERICA by Chinese Buddhist Priests 

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LEO. FOUR CHAPTERS OF NORTH'S PLUTARCH, Containing the Lives of Caius Mar- 
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,to Shakespeare's Tragedies ; Coriolanus, Julius Csesar, arfd Antony and Cleo- 
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LERMONTOFF. THE DEMON. By Michael Lerinontoff. Translated from the 
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LESLEY. MAN : S ORIGIN AND DESTINY. Sketched from the Platform of the Physical 
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LESSING. LETTERS ON BIBLIOLATRY. By Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. Translated 
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LEWES. PROBLEMS OF LIFE AND MIND. By George Henry Lewes. First Series : 

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Demy 8vo, pp. 200, cloth. 1879. 7s. 6d. 



42 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

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MACCORMAC. THE CONVERSATION OF A SOUL WITH GOD : A Theodicy. By Henry 
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MACHIAVELLI. THE HISTORICAL, POLITICAL, AND DIPLOMATIC WRITINGS OF 
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MACKENZIE. HISTORY OF THE RELATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT WITH THE HILL 
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Department, and formerly Secretary to the Government of Bengal. Royal 8vo, 
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MADDEN. COINS OF THE JEWS. Being a History of the Jewish Coinage and Money 
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1876. Is. 

MAHAPARTNIBBANASUTTA. See CHILDERS. 

MAHA-VIRA-CHARITA ; or, The Adventures of the Great Hero Rama. An Indian 
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MAIMONIDES. THE GUIDE OF THE PERPLEXED OF MAIMONIDES. See English and 
Foreign Philosophical Library. 

MALLESON. ESSAYS AND LECTURES ON INDIAN HISTORICAL SUBJECTS. By Colonel 
G. B. Malleson, C.S.I. Second Issue. Crown 8vo, pp. 348, cloth. 1876. 5s. 

MAN. ON THE ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS. By Edward 
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xxviii.-298, with Map and 8 Plates, cloth. 1885. 10s. 6d. 

MANDLEY. WOMAN OUTSIDE CHRISTENDOM. An Exposition of the Influence 
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MANIPULUS VOCABULORUM. A Rhyming Dictionary of the English Language. By 
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MAN(EUVRES. A RETROSPECT OF THE AUTUMN MANOEUVRES, 1871. With 5 Plans. 
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MARIETTE-BEY. THE MONUMENTS OF UPPER EGYPT: a translation of the 
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MARKHAM. QUICHUA GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY. Contributions towards a 
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lected by Clements R. Markham, F.S. A. Crown 8vo, pp. 223, cloth. 1, 11s. 6d. 

MARKHAM. OLLANTA : A Drama in the Quichua Language. Text, Translation, 
and Introduction. By Clements R. Markham, C.B. Crown 8vo, pp. 128, cloth. 
1871. 7s. 6d. 

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Chinchona Genus. By Clements R. Markham, C.B., Member of the Imperial Aca- 
demy Naturae Curiosorum, with the Cognomen of Chinchon. Small 4to, pp. xii. and 
100. With 2 Coloured Plates, Map, and Illustrations. Handsomely bound. 
1874. 28s. 



44 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

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MARKHAM. NARRATIVES OF THE MISSION OF GEORGE BOGLE TO TIBET, and of the 
Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa. Edited with Notes, an Introduction, and 
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Second Edition. 8vo, pp. clxv. and 362, cloth. "With Maps and Illustrations. 
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MARES. SERMONS. Preached on various occasions at the West London Synagogue 
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cloth. 1885. 7s. 6d. Third Series, demy 8vo, pp. iv.-284, cloth. 1885. 7s. 6d. 

MARMONTEL. BELISAIRE. Par Marmontel. Nouvelle Edition. 12mo, pp. xii. 
and 123, cloth. 1867. 2s. 6d. 

MARSDEN. NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA ILLUSTRATA. THE PLATES OF THE ORIENTAL 
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MARTIN. THE CHINESE : THEIR EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY, AND LETTERS. By W. 
A. P. Martin, D.D., LL.D., President of the Tungwen College, Pekin. 8vo, pp. 
320, cloth. 1881. 7s. 6d. 

MARTINEAU. ESSAYS, PHILOSOPHICAL AND THEOLOGICAL. By James Martineau. 
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MARTINEAU. LETTERS FROM IRELAND. By Harriet Martineau. Reprinted from 
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MASON. BURMA: ITS PEOPLE AND PRODUCTIONS ; or, Notes on the Fauna, Flora, 
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M.R. A.S., Corresponding Member of the American Oriental Society, of the Boston 
Society of Natural History, and of the Lyceum of Natural History, New York. 
Vol. I. GEOLOGY, MINERALOGY AND ZOOLOGY. Vol. II. BOTANY. Rewritten and 
Enlarged by W. Theobald, late Deputy-Superintendent Geological Survey of 
India. Two Vols., royal 8vo, pp. xxvi. and 560; xvi. and 788 and xxxvi., cloth. 
1884. 3. 

MATHEWS. ABRAHAM IBN EZRA'S COMMENTARY ON THE CANTICLES AFTER THE 
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B.A., Exeter College, Oxford. Crown 8vo, pp. x., 34, and 24, limp cloth. 1874. 
2s. 6d. 

MATERIA MEDICA, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND APPLIED. Vol. I. Contents : Aconitum, 
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Black, M.D. ; Kali Bichromicum, by J. J. Drysdale, M.D. ; Nux Vomica, by F. 
Black, M.D.; Plumbum, by F. Black, M.D. Demy 8vo, pp. xxiv.-726, cloth. 
1884. 15s. 

MAXWELL. A MANUAL OF THE MALAY LANGUAGE. By W. E. MAXWELL, of the 
Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law ; Assistant Resident, Perak, Malay Peninsula. 
With an Introductory Sketch of the Sanskrit Element in Malay. Crown 8vo, 
pp. viii. and 182, cloth. 1882. 7s. 6d. 

MAY. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 1860 to 1883. With 
Special Reference to Electro-Technics. Compiled by G. May. With an Index 
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Published by Trubner & Co. 45 

MAYER. ON THE ART OP POTTERY: with a History of its Kise and Progress in 
Liverpool. By Joseph Mayer, F.S.A., F.R.S.N.A., &c. 8vo, pp. 100, boards. 
1873. 5s. 

MAYERS. TREATIES BETWEEN THE EMPIRE OF CHINA AND FOREIGN POWERS, 
together with Regulations for the conduct of Foreign Trade, &c. Edited by "W. 
F. Mayers, Chinese Secretary to H.B.M.'s Legation at Peking. 8vo, pp. 246, 
cloth. 1877. 25s. 

MAYERS. THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT : a Manual of Chinese Titles, categorically 
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Secretary to H.B.M.'s Legation at Peking, &C..&G. Royal 8vo, pp. viii. and 160, 
cloth. 1878. 30s. 

M'CRINDLE. ANCIENT INDIA, AS DESCRIBED BY MEGASTHENES AND ARRIAN; 
being a translation of the fragments of the Indika of Megasthenes collected by 
Dr. Schwanbeck, and of the first part of the Indika of Arrian. By J. W. 
M'Crindle, M.A., Principal of the Government College, Patna, &c. "With 
Introduction, Notes, and Map of Ancient India. Post 8vo, pp. xi. and 224, 
cloth. 1877. 7s. 6d. 

M'CRINDLE. THE COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION OF THE ERYTHRAEAN SEA. Being 
a Translation of the Periplus Maris Erythrsei, by an Anonymous "Writer, and of 
Arrian's Account of the Voyage of Nearkhos, from the Mouth of the Indus to the 
Head of the Persian Gulf. "With Introduction, Commentary, Notes, and Index. 
By J. W. M'Crindle, M.A., Edinburgh, &c. Post 8vo, pp. iv. and 238, cloth. 
1879. 7s. 6d. 

M'CRINDLE. Ancient India as Described by Ktesias the Knidian; being a Transla- 
tion of the Abridgment of his "Indika " by Photios, and of the Fragments of that 
Work preserved in other Writers. With Introduction, Notes, and Index. By 
J. W. M'Crindle, M.A., M.R.S.A. Svo, pp. viii. and 104, cloth. 1882. 6s. 

MECHANIC (THE YOUNG). A Book for Boys, containing Directions for the use of 
all kinds of Tools, and for the construction of Steam Engines and Mechanical 
Models, including the Art of Turning in Wood and Metal. Fifth Edition. 
Imperial 16mo, pp. iv. and 346, and 70 Engravings, cloth. 1878. 6s. 

MECHANIC'S WORKSHOP (AMATEUR). A Treatise containing Plain and Concise 
Directions for the Manipulation of Wood and Metals, including Casting, Forging, 
Brazing, Soldering, and Carpentry. By the Author of "The Lathe and its Uses." 
Sixth Edition. Demy Svo, pp. iv. and 148. Illustrated, cloth. 1880. 6s. 

MEDITATIONS ON DEATH AND ETERNITY. Translated from the German by Frederica 
Rowan. Published by Her Majesty's gracious permission. Svo, pp. 386, cloth. 
1862. 10s. 6d. 

DITTO. Smaller Edition, crown Svo, printed on toned paper, pp. 352, cloth. 
1884. 6s. 

MEDITATIONS ON LIFE AND ITS RELIGIOUS DUTIES. Translated from the German 
by Frederica Rowan. Dedicated to H.R.H. Princess Louis of Hesse. Published 
by Her Majesty's gracious permission. Being the Companion Volume to "Medi- 
tations on Death and Eternity." Svo, pp. vi. and 370, cloth. 1863. 10s. 6d. 

DITTO. Smaller Edition, crown Svo, printed on toned paper, pp. 338. 1863. 
6s. 

MEDLICOTT. A MANUAL OF THE GEOLOGY OF INDIA, chiefly compiled from the 
observations of the Geological Survey. By H. B. Medlicott, M. A., Superintendent, 
Geological Survey of India, and W. T. Blanford, A.R.S.M., F.R.S., Deputy Super- 
intendent. Published by order of the Government of India. 2 vols. Svo, pp. 
xviii.-lxxx.-S18, with 21 Plates and large coloured Map mounted in case, uniform 
cloth. 1879. 16s. (For Part III. see BALL.) 



46 A Catalogue of Important Works, 

MEGHA-DUTA (THE). (Cloud-Messenger.) By Kalidasa. Translated from the 
Sanskrit into English Verse by the late H. H. Wilson, M. A., F.R.S. The Vocabu- 
lary by Francis Johnson. New Edition. 4to, pp. xi. and 180, cloth. 10s. 6d. 

MEREDYTH. AKCA, A REPERTOIRE OF ORIGINAL POEMS, Sacred and Secular. By 
F. Meredyth, M.A., Canon of Limerick Cathedral. Crown 8vo, pp. 124, cloth. 
1875. 5s. 

METCALFE. THE ENGLISHMAN AND THE SCANDINAVIAN. By Frederick Met- 
calfe, M.A., Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford; Translator of "Gallus" and 
"Charicles;" and Author of "The Oxonian in Iceland." Post 8vo, pp. 512, 
cloth. 1880. 18s. 

MICHEL. LES ECOSSAIS EN FRANCE, LES FRANC_AIS EN ECOSSE. Par Francisque 
Michel, Correspondant de 1'Institut de France, &c. In 2 vols. 8vo, pp. vii., 547, 
and 551, rich blue cloth, with emblematical designs. With upwards of 100 Coats 
of Arms, and other Illustrations. Price, 1, 12s. Also a Lai-ge-Paper Edition 
(limited to 100 Copies), printed on Thick Paper. 2 vols. 4to, half morocco, with 3 
additional Steel Engravings. 1862. 3, 3s. 

MICKIEWICZ. KONRAD WALLENROD. An Historical Poem. By A. Mickiejvicz. 
Translated from the Polish into English Verse by Miss M. Biggs. 18mo, pp* 
xvi. and 100, cloth. 1882. 2s. 6d. 

MILL. AUGUSTE COMTE AND POSITIVISM. By the late John Stuart Mill, M.P, 
Third Edition. 8vo, pp. 200, cloth. 1882. 3s. 6d. 

MILLHOUSE. MANUAL OF ITALIAN CONVERSATION. For the Use of Schools. By 
John Millhouse. 18mo, pp. 126, cloth. 1866. 2s. 

MILLHOUSE. NEW ENGLISH AND ITALIAN PRONOUNCING AND EXPLANATORY DIC- 
TIONARY. By John Millhouse. Vol. I. English-Italian. Vol. II. Italian-English. 
Fourth Edition. 2 vols. square 8vo, pp. 654 and 740, cloth. 1867. 12s. 

MILNE. NOTES ON CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND CRYSTALLO-PHYSICS. Being the Sub- 
stance of Lectures delivered at Yedo during the years 1876-1877. By John 
Milne, F.G-.S. 8vo, pp. viii. and 70, cloth. 1879. 3s. 

MILTON AND VONDEL. See EDMUNDSON. 

MINOCHCHERJI. PAHLAVI, GUJ!RATI, AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY. By Jamashji 
Dastur Minochcherji. Vol. I., with Photograph of Author. 8vo, pp. clxxii. and 
168, cloth. 1877. 14s. 

MITRA. BUDDHA GAYA : The Hermitage of Sakya Muni. By Kajendralala Mitra, 
LL.D., C.I.E., &c. 4to, pp. xvi. and 258, with 51 Plates, cloth. 1879. 3. 

MOCATTA. MORAL BIBLICAL GLEANINGS AND PRACTICAL TEACHINGS, Illustrated 
by Biographical Sketches Drawn from the Sacred Volume. By J. L. Mocatta. 
8vo, pp. viii. and 446, cloth. 1872. 7s. 

MODERN FRENCH READER (THE). Prose. Junior Course. Tenth Edition. Edited 
by Ch. Cassal, LL.D., and Theodore Karcher, LL.B. Crown 8vo, pp. xiv. and 224, 
cloth. 1884. 2s. 6d. 
SENIOR COURSE. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, pp. xiv. and 418, cloth. 1880. 4s. 

MODERN FRENCH READER. A GLOSSARY of Idioms, Gallicisms, and other Diffi- 
culties contained in the Senior Course of the Modern French Reader ; with Short 
Notices of the most important French Writers and Historical or Literary Charac- 
ters, and hints as to the works to be read or studied. By Charles Cassal, LL.D., 
&c. Crown 8vo, pp. viii. and 104, cloth. 1881. 2s. 6d. 

MODERN FRENCH READER. SENIOR COURSE AND GLOSSARY combined. 6s. 

MORELET. TRAVELS IN CENTRAL AMERICA, including Accounts of some Regions 
unexplored since the Conquest. From the French of A. Morelet, by Mrs. M. F 
Squier. Edited by E. G. Squier. 8vo, pp. 430, cloth. 1871. 8s. 6d. 

MORFILL. SIMPLIFIED POLISH GRAMMAR. See Triibner's Collection. 



Published ~by Triibner & Co. 47 

MORFIT. A PBACTICAL TKEATISE ON THE MANUFACTURE OF SOAPS. By Campbell 
Morfit, M.D., F.C.S. , formerly Professor of Applied Chemistry in the University 
of Maryland. "With Illustrations. Demy 8vo, pp. xii. and 270, cloth. 1871. 
2, 12s. 6d. 

MORFIT. A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON PURE FERTILIZERS, and the Chemical Con- 
version of Rock Guanos, Marlstones, Coprolites, and the Crude Phosphates of 
Lime and Alumina generally into various valuable Products. By Campbell Morfit, 
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PATON. A HISTORY OF THE EGYPTIAN REVOLUTION, from the Period of the Mame- 
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PATON. HENRY BEYLE (otherwise DE STENDAHL). A Critical and Biographical 
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PATTON. THE DEATH OF DEATH ; or, A Study of God's Holiness in Connection 
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PAULI. SIMON DE MONTFORT, EARL OF LEICESTER, the Creator of the House of 
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PEZZI. ARYAN PHILOLOGY, according to the most recent researches (Glottologia 
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PLUMPTRE. GENERAL SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF PANTHEISM. By C. E. 
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Si-Yu-Ki. BUDDHIST RECORDS OF THE WESTERN WORLD. Translated 
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Spanish and Italian, and edited by John T. Betts. Crown Svo, pp. xii. and 
188, cloth. 1882. 6s. 

VALDES. JUAN DE VALDES' COMMENTARY UPON THE GOSPEL OF ST. MATTHEW. 
With Professor Boehmer's "Lives of Juan and Alfonso de Valdes." Now for 
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By John T. Betts. Post Svo, pp. xii. and 512-30, cloth. 1882. 7s. 6d. 

VALDES. SPIRITUAL MILK; or, Christian Instruction for Children. By Juan de 
Valdes. Translated from the Italian, edited and published by John T. Betts. 
With Lives of the twin brothers, Juan and Alfonso de Valdes. By E. Boehmer, 
D.D. Fcap. Svo, pp. 60, wrappers. 1882. 2s. 

VALDES. SPIRITUAL MILK. Octaglot. The Italian original, with translations 
into Spanish, Latin, Polish, German, English, French, and Engadin. With a 
Critical and Historical Introduction by Edward Boehmer, the Editor of ' ' Spanish 
Reformers." 4to, pp. 88, wrappers. 1884. 6s. 

VALDES. THREE OPUSCULES : an Extract from Valdes' Seventeen Opuscules. By 
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pp. 58, wrappers. 1881. Is. 6d. 

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1882. 2s. 6d. 

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1883. 6s. 



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VAN CAMPEN. THE DUTCH IN THE ARCTIC SEAS. By Samuel Eichard Van 
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Expedition and Route. Third Edition. Pp. xxxvii. and 263, cloth. 1877. 10s. 6d. 
Vol. II. in preparation. 

VAN DE WEYER. CHOIX p'OpuscuLEs PHILOSOPHIQUES, HISTOEIQUES, POLITIQU; s 
ET LITTERAIRES de Sylvain Van de Weyer, Precedes d'Avant propos de 1'Editeu? . 
Roxburghe style. Crown 8vo. PREMIERE SERIE. Pp. 374. 1863. 10s. 6d. 
DEUXIEME SERIE. Pp. 502. 1869. 12s. TROISIEME SERIE. Pp. 391. 1875. 
10s. 6d. QUATRIEME S^RIE. Pp. 366. 1876. 10s. 6d. 

VAN EYS. BASQUE GRAMMAR. See Trubner's Collection. 

VAN LAUN. GRAMMAR OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE. By H. Van Laun. Parts 
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1874. 4s. Part III. Exercises, llth Edition. Cr. 8vo, pp. xii. and 285, cloth. 
1873. 3s. 6d. 

VAN LAUN. LEyoNS GRADUEES DE TRADUCTION ET DE LECTURE ; or, Graduated 
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Idioms. By Henii Van Laun. 4th Edition. 12mo, pp. viii. and 400, cloth. 
1868. 5s. 

VAN PRAAGH. LESSONS FOR THE INSTRUCTION OF DEAF AND DUMB CHILDREN, 
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of the School and Training College for Teachers of the Association for the Oral 
Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, Officier d' Academic, France. Fcap. 8vo, 
Part I., pp. 52, cloth. 1884. 2s. 6d. Part II., pp. 62, cloth. Is. 6d. 

VARDHAMANA'S GANARATNAMAHODADHI. See AUCTORES SANSKRITI, Vol. IV. 

VAZIR OF LANKURAN : A Persian Play. A Text-Book of Modern Colloquial 
Persian. Edited, with Grammatical Introduction, Translation, Notes, and Voca- 
bulary, by "VV. H. Haggard, late of H.M. Legation in Teheran, and G. le Strange. 
Crown 8vo, pp. 230, cloth. 1882. 10s. 6d. 

VELASQUEZ AND SIMONNE'S NEW METHOD TO READ, WRITE, AND SPEAK THE 
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1882. 6s. 
KEY. Post 8vo, pp. 174, cloth. 4s. 

VELASQUEZ. A DICTIONARY OF THE SPANISH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES. For 
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VELASQUEZ. A PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY OF THE SPANISH AND ENGLISH LAN- 
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By M. Velasquez de la Cadena. Roy. 8vo, pp. 1280, cloth. 1873. 1, 4s. 

VELASQUEZ. NEW SPANISH READER : Passages from the most approved authors, 
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VELASQUEZ. AN EASY INTRODUCTION TO SPANISH CONVERSATION, containing all 
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cloth. 1882. 10s. 6d. 

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WEISBACH. THEORETICAL MECHANICS : A Manual of the Mechanics of Engineer- 
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Engineers, Architects, &c. By Julius Weisbach, Ph.D., Oberbergrath, and Pro- 
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WELLER. AN IMPROVED DICTIONARY ; English and French, and French and Eng- 
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WEST and BUHLER. A DIGEST OF THE HINDU LAW OF INHERITANCE, PARTITION, 
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J. G. Biihler. Third Edition. Demy 8vo, pp. 1450, sewed. 1884. 1, 16s. 

WETHERELL. THE MANUFACTURE OF VINEGAR, its Theory and Practice; with 
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WHEELDON. ANGLING RESORTS NEAR LONDON : The Thames and the Lea. By J. 
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WHEELER. THE HISTORY OF INDIA FROM THE EARLIEST AGES. By J. Talboys 
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WHEELER. THE FOREIGNER IN CHINA. By L. N. Wheeler, D.D. With Intro- 
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WHERRY. A COMPREHENSIVE COMMENTARY TO THE QURAN.. To which is prefixed 
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E. M. Wherry M. A., Lodiana. 3 vols. post 8vo, cloth. Vol. I. Pp. xii. and 392. 
1882. 12s. 6d. Vol. II. Pp. vi. and 408. 1884. 12s. 6d. 

WHINFIELD. QUATRAINS OF OMAR KHAYYAM. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

WHINFIELD. See GULSHAN I. RAZ. 

WHIST. SHORT RULES FOR MODERN WHIST, Extracted from the "Quarterly 
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WHITE. SPINOZA. See English and Foreign Philosophical Library. 

WHITNEY. LANGUAGE AND THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE : Twelve Lectures on the 
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WHITNEY. LANGUAGE AND ITS STUDY, with especial reference to the Indo- 
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WHITNEY. Oriental and Linguistic Studies. By W. D. Whitney. First Series. 
Crown 8vo, pp. x. and 420, cloth. 1874. 12s. Second Series. Crown 8vo, pp. xii. 
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WHITNEY. A SANSKRIT GRAMMAR, including both the Classical Language and the 
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WHITWELL. IRON SMELTER'S POCKET ANALYSIS BOOK. By Thomas Whitwell, 
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WILKINSON. THE SAINT'S TRAVEL TO THE LAND OF CANAAN. Wherein are dis- 
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R. Wilkinson. Printed 1648 ; reprinted 1874. Fcap. 8vo, pp. 208, cloth. Is. 6d. 

WILLIAMS. A SYLLABIC DICTIONARY OP THE CHINESE LANGUAGE ; arranged ac- 
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heard in Pekin, Canton, Amoy, and Shanghai. By S. Wells Williams, LL.D. 
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WILLIAMS. MODERN INDIA AND THE INDIANS. See Triibner's Oriental Series. 

WILSON. WORKS OF THE LATE HORACE HAYMAN WILSON, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 

Vols. I. and II. Essays and Lectures chiefly on the Religion of the Hindus, by 
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WILSON. THOUGHTS ON SCIENCE, THEOLOGY, AND ETHICS. By John Wilson, M. A., 
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WISE. COMMENTARY ON THE HINDU SYSTEM OF MEDICINE. By T. A. Wise, 
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WISE. REVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE. By Thomas A. Wise. 2 vols. 
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WISE. HISTORY OF PAGANISM IN CALEDONIA. By T. A. Wise, M.D., &c. Demy 
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WITHERS. THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AS PRONOUNCED. By G. Withers. Royal 
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WOOD. CHRONOS. Mother Earth's Biography. A Romance of the New School. 
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WOMEN. THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN. A Comparison of the Relative Legal Status of 
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WRIGHT. THE CELT, THE ROMAN, AND THE SAXON; a History of the Early 
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TRUBNiER'S 
COLLECTION OF SIMPLIFIED GRAMMARS 



OF THE 



PRINCIPAL ASIATIC AND EUROPEAN LANGUAGES, 

EDITED BY KEINHOLD KOST, LL.D., PH.D. 



The object of this Series is to provide the learner with a concise but 
practical Introduction to the various Languages, and at the same time to 
furnish Students of Comparative Philology with a clear and comprehensive 
view of their structure. The attempt to adapt the somewhat cumbrous 
grammatical system of the Greek and Latin to every other tongue has intro- 
duced a great deal of unnecessary difficulty into the study of Languages. 
Instead of analysing existing locutions and endeavouring to discover the 
principles which regulate them, writers of grammars have for the most part 
constructed a framework of rules on the old lines, and tried to make the 
language of which they were treating fit into it. Where this proves im- 
possible, the difficulty is met by lists of exceptions and irregular forms, thus 
burdening the pupil's mind with a mass of details of which he can make 
no practical use. 

In these Grammars the subject is viewed from a different standpoint ; 
the structure of each language is carefully examined, and the principles 
which underlie it are carefully explained ; while apparent discrepancies 
and so-called irregularities are shown to be only natural euphonic and 
other changes. All technical terms are excluded unless their meaning 
and application is self-evident ; no arbitrary rules are admitted ; the old 
classification into declensions, conjugations, &c., and even the usual para- 
digms and tables, are omitted. Thus reduced to the simplest principles, 
the Accidence and Syntax can be thoroughly comprehended by the student 
on one perusal, and a few hours' diligent study will enable him to analyse 
any sentence in the language. 



Now READY. 
Crown 8vo, cloth, uniformly bound. 

I. Hindustani, Persian, and Arabic. By the late E. H. Palmer, 

M.A. Second Edition. Pp. 112. 5s. 
II. Hungarian. By I. SINGER, of Buda-Pesth. Pp. vi. and 88. 

4s. 6d. 

For continuation see next paye. 



80 Triibners Simplified Grammars continued. 

III. Basque. By W. VAN EYS. Pp. xii. and 52. 3s. 6d. 
IV. Malagasy. By G. W. PARKER. Pp. 66. 5s. 
fV. Modern Greek. By E. M. GELBART, M.A. Pp. 68. 2s. 6d. 
VI. Roumanian. By M. TORCEANU. Pp. viii. and 72. 5s. 
VII. Tibetan. By H. A. JASCHKE. Pp. viii. and 104. 5s. 
VIII. Danish. By E. C. OTTE. Pp. viii. and 66. 2s. 6d. 
IX. Turkish. By J. W. REDHOUSE, M.R.A.S. Pp. xii. and 204. 

10s. 6d. 

X. Swedish. By Miss E. C. OTTE. Pp. xii. and 70. 2s. 6d. 
XI. Polish. By W. R. MORFILL, M.A. Pp. viii. and 64. 3s. 6d. 
XII. Pali. By E. MULLER, Ph.D. Pp. xvi.-144. 7s. 6d. 
XIII. Sanskrit. By H. EDGREN. Pp. xii. -178. 10s. 6d. 

The following are in preparation : 

SIMPLIFIED GEAMMAES OF 

Albanian, by WASSA PASHA, Prince of the Lebanon. 

Assyrian, by Prof. SAYCE. 

Bengali, by J. F. BLUMHARDT, of the British Museum. 

Burmese, by Dr. E. FORCHAMMER. 

Cymric and Gaelic, by H. JENNER, of the British Museum. 

Egyptian, by Dr. BIRCH. 

Finnic, by Prof. OTTO DONNER, of Helsingfors. 

Hebrew, by Dr. GINSBURG. 

Icelandic, by Dr. WIMMER, Copenhagen. 

Lettish, by Dr. M. I. A. VOLKEL. 

Lithuanian, by Dr. M.jjl. A. VOLKEL. 

Malay, by W. E. MAXWELL, of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law. 

Portuguese,fby WALTER DE GRAY BIRCH. 

Prakrit, by HJALMAR]EDGREN, Lund, Sweden. 

Russian, Bohemian, Bulgarian and Serbian, by W. R. MORFILL, of 

Oxford. 
Sinhalese, by "Dr. EDWARD MULLER. 



Arrangements ar<f j being made with competent Scholars for the early 
preparation^ of Grammars of German, Dutch, Italian, Chinese 



LONDON : TRUBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL. 



PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE, HANSON AND CO. 
EDINBURGH AND LONDON. , 

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